Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 175, Issue 3–4, pp 161–223 | Cite as

The phylogeny and evolution of thePterygodium—Corycium complex (Coryciinae, Orchidaceae)

  • H. Kurzweil
  • H. P. Linder
  • P. Chesselet


The leaf-anatomy, palynology, seed-morphology, vegetative morphology and especially the highly complicated floral morphology of theCoryciinae s. str. (Diseae: Orchidoideae: Orchidaceae) are described and illustrated in detail. On the basis of these characters the presumed phylogeny, based on a rigorous cladistic analysis, is presented. The cladistic biogeographical analysis of theCoryciinae s. str. shows that it is a member of the Afrotemperate Track, with a pattern of vicariance events typical of the members of this track. An analysis of the patterns of speciation shows that allopatric speciation appears to be rare, and that parapatric speciation across edaphic boundaries may be the most important factor. Proceeding from the information presented, a new classification of the group is proposed in which we recognize the four generaCeratandra, Evotella, Pterygodium andCorycium. The new monotypic genusEvotella comprises a species originally described asPterygodium rubiginosum. The three species of the genusAnochilus are transferred toCorycium andPterygodium. P. magnum, which was originally described asPterygodium but was transferred toCorycium lately, is placed in a monotypic section ofPterygodium.

Key words

Angiosperms Orchidaceae Coryciinae Ceratandra Evota Evotella Ommatodium Pterygodium Anochilus Corycium Morphology phylogeny cladistics phytogeography speciation classification Flora of southern Africa 


  1. Anthony, N. A., Schelpe, E. A., 1982: New species and new combinations in AfricanPteridophyta andOrchidaceae. — Contr. Bol. Herb.10: 143–164.Google Scholar
  2. Barthlott, W., 1976: Morphologie der Samen von Orchideen in Hinblick auf taxonomische und funktionelle Aspekte. — Proc. Eight World Orchid Conference, 444–453. — Frankfurt: Deutsche Orchideengesellschaft.Google Scholar
  3. —,Ziegler, B., 1981: Mikromorphologie der Samenschalen als systematisches Merkmal bei Orchideen. — Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges.94: 267–273.Google Scholar
  4. Bentham, G., Hooker, J. D., 1883: Genera plantarum 3. — London: Reeve & Co.Google Scholar
  5. Bolus, H., 1888: The orchids of the Cape Peninsula. — Trans. S. African Phil. Soc.5: 1–201.Google Scholar
  6. —, 1893–1896: Icones Orchidearum Austro-Africanarum Extratropicarum 1. — London: Wesley & Sons.Google Scholar
  7. —, 1911: Icones Orchidearum Austro-Africanarum Extratropicarum 2. — London. Wesley & Sons.Google Scholar
  8. —, 1913: Icones Orchidearum Austra-Africanarum Extratropicarum 3. — London. Wesley & Sons.Google Scholar
  9. —, 1918: The orchids of the Cape Peninsula. 2nd edn. — Cape Town: Darter Bros. & Co.Google Scholar
  10. Bond, P., Goldblatt, P., 1984: Plants of the Cape Flora. A descriptive catalogue. — J. S. African Bot., Suppl.13.Google Scholar
  11. Bremer, K., 1976: The genusRelhania (Compositae). — Opera Bot.40.Google Scholar
  12. Carpenter, J. M., 1988: Choosing among multiple equally parsimonious cladograms. — Cladistics4: 291–296.Google Scholar
  13. Chesselet, P., 1989: Systematic implications of leaf anatomy and palynology in theDisinae andCoryciinae (Orchidaceae). — Masters thesis, unpublished; University of Cape Town.Google Scholar
  14. Clifford, H. T., Smith, W. K., 1969: Seed morphology and classification of theOrchidaceae. — Phytomorphology19: 133–139.Google Scholar
  15. Davis, P. H., Heywood, V. H., 1963: Principles of angiosperm taxonomy. — Edinburgh, London: Oliver & Boyd.Google Scholar
  16. Dressler, R. L., 1981: The orchids—natural history and classification. — Cambridge, Mass., London: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  17. —, 1983: Classification of theOrchidaceae and their probable origin. — Telopea2: 413–424.Google Scholar
  18. Edwards, D., Leistner, O. A., 1971: A degree reference system for citing biological records in Southern Africa. — Mitt. bot. Staatssamml. München10: 501–509.Google Scholar
  19. Farris, J. S., 1988: HENNIG86 Reference. — Published privately.Google Scholar
  20. Garay, L. A., 1960: On the origin of theOrchidaceae. — Bot. Museum Leaflets19: 57–95.Google Scholar
  21. Gerstberger, P., Leins, P., 1978: REM-Untersuchungen an Blütenknospen vonPhysalis philadelphica (Solanaceae). — Ber. Deutsch Bot. Ges.91: 381–387.Google Scholar
  22. Gibbs-Russel, G. E., 1985: Analysis of the size and composition of the southern African flora. — Bothalia15: 613–629.Google Scholar
  23. Goldblatt, P., 1978: An analysis of the flora of Southern Africa: its characteristics, relationships, and origins. — Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard.65: 369–436.Google Scholar
  24. —, 1982: Systematics ofFreesia Klatt (Iridaceae). — J. S. African Bot.48: 39–91.Google Scholar
  25. —, 1987: Systematics of the Southern African genusHexaglottis (Iridaceae-Iridoideae). — Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard.74: 542–569.Google Scholar
  26. Good, R., 1974: The geography of the flowering plants. 4th edn. — London: Longman.Google Scholar
  27. Hilliard, O. M., Burtt, R. L., 1987: The botany of the southern Natal Drakensberg. — Cape Town: National Botanic Gardens.Google Scholar
  28. Holmgren, K., Keuken, W., Schofield, E. K., 1981: Index Herbariorum 1, 7th edn. — Regnum vegetabile106.Google Scholar
  29. Humphries, C. J., Parenti, L., 1986: Cladistic biogeography. — Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  30. Kränzlin, F., 1897: Orchidacearum genera et species. — Berlin: Mayer & Müller.Google Scholar
  31. Kurzweil, H., 1987a: Developmental studies in orchid flowers I: Epidendroid and vandoid species. — Nordic J. Bot.7: 427–442.Google Scholar
  32. —, 1987b: Developmental studies in orchid flowers II: Orchidoid species. — Nordic J. Bot.7: 443–451.Google Scholar
  33. —, 1989: Floral morphology and ontogeny inHuttonaea pulchra. — Lindleyana4: 1–5.Google Scholar
  34. —, 1990: Floral morphology and ontogeny inOrchidaceae subtribeDisinae. — Bot. J. Linn. Soc.102: 61–83.Google Scholar
  35. —, 1991: The unusual structure of the gynostemium in theOrchidaceae-Coryciinae. — Bot. Jahrb.112: 273–293.Google Scholar
  36. Lewis, G. J., 1950:Orchidaceae. — InAdamson, R. S., Salter, T. M., (Eds.): Flora of the Cape Peninsula, pp. 265–309. — Cape Town: Juta.Google Scholar
  37. Linder, H. P., 1981a: Taxonomic studies on theDisinae: 1. A revision of the genusBrownleea Lindl. — J. S. African Bot.47: 13–48.Google Scholar
  38. —, 1981b: Taxonomic studies on theDisinae: II. A revision of the genusSchizodium Lindl. — J. S. African Bot.47: 339–371.Google Scholar
  39. —, 1981c: Taxonomic studies on theDisinae. III. A revision ofDisa Berg. excluding sect.Micranthae Lindl. — Contr. Bol. Herb.9: 1–370.Google Scholar
  40. —, 1981d: Taxonomic studies in theDisinae (Orchidaceae) IV. A revision ofDisa Berg. sect.Micranthae Lindl. — Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belgique51: 255–346.Google Scholar
  41. —, 1981e: Taxonomic studies in theDisinae. V. A revision of the genusMonadenia. — Bothalia13: 339–363.Google Scholar
  42. —, 1981f: Taxonomic studies in theDisinae. VI. A revision of the genusHerschelia. — Bothalia13: 365–388.Google Scholar
  43. —, 1983: The historical phytogeography of theDisinae (Orchidaceae). — Bothalia14: 565–570.Google Scholar
  44. —, 1985: Gene flow, speciation, and species diversity patterns in a species-rich area: the Cape Flora. — InVrba, E. S., (Ed.): Species and speciation. — Transvaal Museum Monograph4: 53–57.Google Scholar
  45. —, 1986: Notes on the phylogeny of theOrchidoideae, with particular reference to theDiseae. — Lindleyana1: 51–64.Google Scholar
  46. —, 1988a: Taxonomic notes on some orchids from the soutwestern Cape Province, South Africa. — S. African J. Bot.54: 496–500.Google Scholar
  47. —, 1988b: A review of cladistics for botanists. — S. African J. Bot.54: 208–220Google Scholar
  48. —, 1990: On the relationship between the vegetation and floras of the Afro-montane and the Cape regions in Africa. — Mitt. Bot. Gart. Hamburg.23 b: 777–790.Google Scholar
  49. —,Kurzweil, H., 1990: Floral morphology and phylogeny in theOrchidaceae-Disinae. — Bot. J. Linn. Soc.102: 287–302.Google Scholar
  50. —,Vlok, J. H., 1991: The morphology, taxonomy and evolution ofRhodocoma (Restionaceae). — Pl. Syst. Evol.175: 139–160.Google Scholar
  51. Lindley, J., 1833: GeneraCeratandra, Ommatodium, Pterygodium, Corycium, andDisperis. — In: The genera and species of orchidaceous plants. — London: Ridgways.Google Scholar
  52. Maddison, W. P., Donoghue, M. J., Maddison, D. R., 1984: Outgroup analysis and parsimony. — Syst. Zool.33: 83–103.Google Scholar
  53. Manning, J. C., Linder, H. P., 1991: Pollinators and evolution inDisperis (Orchidaceae), or why are there so many species. — S. African J. Sci. (in press).Google Scholar
  54. Nelson, G., Platnick, N., 1981: Systematics and biogeography. — New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Oliver, E. G. H., 1986: A new species of orchid from the northwestern Cape. — S. African J. Bot.52: 256–260.Google Scholar
  56. —,Linder, H. P., Rourke, J. P., 1983: Geographical distribution of present-day Cape taxa and their phytogeographical significance. — Bothalia14: 427–440.Google Scholar
  57. Pfitzer, E., 1889:Orchidaceae. — InEngler, A., Prantl, K., (Eds.): Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien. 2, 6, pp. 52–220. — Leipzig: Engelmann.Google Scholar
  58. Phillips, E. P., 1917: A contribution to the flora of the Leribe Plateau and environs. — Ann. S. African Mus.16: 1–379.Google Scholar
  59. Pijl, Van der, L., Dodson, C. H., 1966: Orchid flowers: their pollination and evolution. — Coral Gables (Florida): University of Miami Press.Google Scholar
  60. Platnick, N. I., 1989: An empirical comparison of microcomputer parsimony programs, II. — Cladistics5: 145–161.Google Scholar
  61. Rohlf, F. J., 1988: NTSYS-pc. Numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system. — New York: Exeter Publishing.Google Scholar
  62. Rolfe, R. A., 1913:Corycieae. — InThiselton-Dyer, W. T., (Ed.): Flora Capensis5.3. — London: Reeve & Co.Google Scholar
  63. Schelpe, E. A., 1966: An introduction to South African Orchids. — Cape Town, Johannesburg: Purnell & Sons.Google Scholar
  64. Schlechter, R., 1898: Monographie derDisperideae. — Bull. Herb. Boissier., ser. 1,6: 800–821, 846–859, 905–955.Google Scholar
  65. —, 1902: Monographie derDiseae. — Bot. Jahrb. Syst.31: 134–313.Google Scholar
  66. —, 1926: Das System der Orchideen. — Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem9: 563–591.Google Scholar
  67. Senghas, K., 1973–1974. UnterfamilieOrchidoideae. — InBrieger, F. C., Maatsch, R., Senghas, K., (Eds.):R. Schlechter, Die Orchideen. 3rd edn. — Berlin: Parey.Google Scholar
  68. Sharman, B. C., 1939: The development of the sinker inOrchis mascula Linn. — Bot. J. Linn. Soc.52: 145–158.Google Scholar
  69. Steiner, K. E., 1989: The pollination ofDisperis (Orchidaceae) by oil-collecting bees in Southern Africa. — Lindleyana4: 164–183.Google Scholar
  70. Stewart, J., Linder, H. P., Schelpe, E. A., Hall, A. V., 1982: Wild orchids of southern Africa. — Johannesburg: Macmillan South Africa.Google Scholar
  71. Summerhayes, V. S., 1968:Orchidaceae, 1. — InMilne-Redhead, E., Polhill, R. M., (Eds.): Flora of tropical East Africa. — London: Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administration.Google Scholar
  72. Takhtajan, A., 1986: Floristic regions of the world. — Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  73. Vermeulen, P., 1966: The system of theOrchidales. — Acta Bot. Neerl.15: 224–253.Google Scholar
  74. Vogel, S., 1959: Organographie der Blüten kapländischer Ophrydeen. — Akad. Wiss. Lit., Math. Naturwiss. Kl. (Mainz)6–7: 1–268.Google Scholar
  75. Weimark, H., 1941: Phytogeographical groups, centres and intervals within the Cape flora. — Lunds Univ. Arsskr. Avd.2 37,5: 1–143.Google Scholar
  76. White, F., 1983: The vegetation of Africa. — Switzerland: Unesco.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Kurzweil
    • 1
  • H. P. Linder
    • 1
  • P. Chesselet
    • 1
  1. 1.Bolus HerbariumUniversity of Cape TownRondeboschSouth Africa
  2. 2.Grassland Research CenterLynn EastSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations