Advertisement

Plant Systematics and Evolution

, Volume 173, Issue 1–2, pp 17–38 | Cite as

The significance of apical meristems in the phylogeny of land plants

  • W. R. Philipson
Article

Abstract

Two principal types of shoot apex are recognized, (1) the classical pyramidal apical cell of pteridophytes which does not divide periclinally, and so never contributes directly to the inner tissues of the axis, and (2) that of seed plants, in which there are one or more superposed initials of which the innermost contributes directly to inner tissues by periclinal divisions. The occurrence of these types in the major groups of living land plants is reviewed. The first type is present in ferns,Equisetum, Psilotum, Tmesipteris, Selaginella, and bryophytes (when apical growth occurs in them). The second type occurs in all angiosperms and gymnosperms, and also inLycopodium, Phylloglossum, Isoetes, andStylites. No exceptions nor intermediate conditions occur. Both types of apex are known in Carboniferous fossils, the first type in sphenopsids and the second in pteridosperms and cordaitean gymnosperms. These apices define two evolutionary lines of land plants which may have originated separately as sporophytes from ancestors with no diploid generation. Correlation of these types with the following features is considered: sieve-element inclusions; initiation of leaves and sporangia; the primary vascular system; embryogeny, the vascular cambium; initiation of lateral roots and the type of branching. Seed plants and pteropsids differ in respect of all these features, giving support to the hypothesis that the sporophytes of these two groups arose independently. The position of sphenopsids and lycopsids is also considered.

Key words

Land plants tracheophytes embryophytes phylogeny sporophyte apical meristem 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andrews, H. N., 1959: Evolutionary trends in early vascular plants. — Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol.24: 217–234.Google Scholar
  2. —, 1975: A new fossil plant of probable intermediate affinities (trimerophyte-progymnosperm). — Canad. J. Bot.53: 1719–1728.Google Scholar
  3. Avanzi, S., D'Amato, F., 1970: Cytochemical and autoradiographic analyses on root primordia and root apices ofMarsilea strigosa. (A new interpretation of the apical structure in cryptogams). — Caryologia23: 335–345.Google Scholar
  4. Axelrod, D. I., 1959: Evolution of the psilophyte paleoflora. — Evolution13: 264–275.Google Scholar
  5. Beck, C. B., 1970: The appearance of gymnosperms structure. — Biol. Rev.45: 379–400.Google Scholar
  6. Behnke, H. D., 1981: Sieve-element characters. — Nordic J. Bot.1: 381–400.Google Scholar
  7. Bhambie, S., 1957: Studies inPteridophyta. 1. The shoot apex ofIsoetes coromandeliana L. — J. Indian Bot. Soc.36: 491–502.Google Scholar
  8. Bierhorst, D. W., 1954: The subterranean sporophytic axis ofPsilotum nudum. — Amer. J. Bot.41: 732–739.Google Scholar
  9. —, 1971: Morphology of vascular plants. — New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  10. —, 1977: On the stem apex, leaf initiation and early leaf ontogeny in filicalean ferns. — Amer. J. Bot.64: 125–152.Google Scholar
  11. Boke, N. H., 1976: Dichotomous branching inMammillaria (Cactaceae). — Amer. J. Bot.63: 1380–1284.Google Scholar
  12. Bold, H. C., 1967: Morphology of plants. 2nd edn. — New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  13. Bower, F. O., 1889: The comparative examination of the meristems of ferns, as a phylogenetic study. — Ann. Bot.3: 305–392.Google Scholar
  14. —, 1894: Studies in the morphology of spore-producing members —Equisetineae andLycopodineae. — Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, ser. B,185: 473–572.Google Scholar
  15. —, 1935: Primitive land plants. — London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  16. Bremer, K., 1985: Summary of green plant phylogeny and classification. — Cladistics1: 369–385.Google Scholar
  17. —, 1987: On cladistic relationships in green plants. — Taxon36: 339–349.Google Scholar
  18. Bruchmann, H., 1909: Vom Prothallium der großen Spore und von der Keimesentwicklung einigerSelaginella-Arten. — Flora99: 12–51.Google Scholar
  19. Burr, F. A., Evert, R. F., 1973: Some aspects of sieve-element structure and development inSelaginella kraussiana. — Protoplasma78: 81–97.Google Scholar
  20. Campbell, D. H., 1914: The structure and affinities ofMacroglossum alidae Copeland. — Ann. Bot.28: 651–669.Google Scholar
  21. —, 1940: The evolution of the land plants (Embryophyta). — London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Chowdhury, C. R., 1962: The embryogeny of conifers: a review. — Phytomorphology12: 313–338.Google Scholar
  23. Cichan, M. A., 1985: Vascular cambium and wood development in Carboniferous plants. — Amer. J. Bot.72: 1163–1176.Google Scholar
  24. Cronquist, A., Takhtajan, A., Zimmermann, W., 1966: On the higher taxa ofEmbryophyta. — Taxon15: 129–134.Google Scholar
  25. D'Amato, F., Avanzi, S., 1968: The shoot apical cell ofEquisetum arvense, a quiescent cell. — Caryologia21: 83–89.Google Scholar
  26. De Bary, A., 1884: Comparative anatomy of the vegetative organs of the phanerogams and ferns, translated byF. O. Bower andD. H. Scott. — Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  27. Delevoryas, T., 1958a: A fossil stem apex from the Pennsylvanian of Iowa. — Amer. J. Bot.45: 84–89.Google Scholar
  28. —, 1958b: The shoot apex ofCallistophyton poroxyloides. — Contr. Museum Paleontology, Univ. Michigan,12: 285–299.Google Scholar
  29. Dermen, H., 1969: Factors affecting plane of mitotic division in shoot apices. — Pädagogische Hochschule Potsdam: Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Reihe13: 23–37.Google Scholar
  30. Doran, P. G., Gensel, P. G., Andrews, H. N., 1978: New occurrences of trimerophytes from the Devonian of eastern Canada. — Canad. J. Bot.56: 3052–3068.Google Scholar
  31. Dormer, K. J., 1946: Vegetative morphology as a guide to the classification of thePapilionatae. — New Phytol.45: 145–161.Google Scholar
  32. —, 1972: Shoot organization in vascular plants. — London: Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
  33. Duckett, J. G., Renzaglia, K. S., 1988: Cell and molecular biology of bryophytes: ultimate limits to the resolution of phylogenetic problems. — Bot. J. Linn. Soc.98: 225–246.Google Scholar
  34. Eggert, D. A., Gaunt, D. D., 1973: Phloem ofSphenophyllum. — Amer. J. Bot.60: 755–770.Google Scholar
  35. Evert, R. F., 1984: Comparative structure of phloiem. — InWhite, R. A., Dickison, W. C., (Eds.): Comparative problems in plant anatomy. — London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  36. Fahn, A., Arzee, T., 1959: Vascularization of articulatedChenopodiaceae and the nature of their fleshy cortex. — Amer. J. Bot.46: 330–338.Google Scholar
  37. Farmer, J. B., 1890: OnIsoetes lacustris L. — Ann. Bot.5: 37–61.Google Scholar
  38. Fisher, J. B., 1976: Development of dichotomous branching and axillary buds inStrelitzia (Monocotyledonae). — Canad. J. Bot.54: 578–592.Google Scholar
  39. Foster, A. S., 1938: Structure and growth of the shoot apex inGinkgo biloba. — Bull. Torrey Bot. Club65: 531–556.Google Scholar
  40. —, 1940: Further studies on zonal structure and growth of the shoot apex ofCycas revoluta Thunb. — Amer. J. Bot.27: 487–501.Google Scholar
  41. —, 1959: Comparative morphology of vascular plants. — San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
  42. Freeberg, J. A., Wetmore, R. H., 1967: TheLycopsida — a study in development. — Phytomorphology17: 78–91.Google Scholar
  43. Galtier, J., 1981: Structures foliares de fougeres et pteridospermales du Carbonifére Inférieur et leur signification evolutive. — Palaeontographica, Abt. B,180: 1–38.Google Scholar
  44. Gifford, E. M., 1943: The structure and development of the shoot apex ofEphedra altissima Desf. — Bull. Torrey Bot. Club70: 15–25.Google Scholar
  45. —, 1983: Quantitative studies of the vegetative shoot apex ofEquisetum scirpoides. — Amer. J. Bot.70: 74–79.Google Scholar
  46. —, 1957: Apical meristems of vegetative shoots and strobili in certain gymnosperms. — Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Washington43: 571–576.Google Scholar
  47. Golub, S. J., Wetmore, R. H., 1948: Studies of development in the vegetative shoot ofEquisetum arvense L. 1. The shoot apex. — Amer. J. Bot.35: 755–767.Google Scholar
  48. Good, C. W., Taylor, T. N., 1972: The ontogeny of Carboniferous articulates: the apex ofSphenophyllum. — Amer. J. Bot.59: 617–626.Google Scholar
  49. Graham, L. E., 1984:Coleochaete and the origin of land plants. — Amer. J. Bot.71: 603–608.Google Scholar
  50. Guttenberg, H. von, 1966: Histogenese der Pteridophyten. — Berlin: Borntraeger.Google Scholar
  51. Haeckel, E., 1866: Generelle Morphologie der Organismen 2. Allgemeine Entwicklungsgeschichte der Organismen. — Berlin: Reimer.Google Scholar
  52. Hagemann, W., 1964: Vergleichende Untersuchungen zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Farnsprosses. 1. Morphogenese und Histogenese am Sproßscheitel leptosporangiater Farne. — Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen40: 27–64.Google Scholar
  53. —, 1980: Über den Verzweigungsvorgang beiPsilotum undSelaginella mit Anmerkungen zum Begriff der Dichotomie. — Pl. Syst. Evol.133: 181–197.Google Scholar
  54. —, 1978: Wedelanlegung und Rhizomverzweigung bei einigen Gleicheniaceen. — Bot. Jahrb.99: 380–399.Google Scholar
  55. Halket, A. C., 1930: The rootlets of “Amyelon radicans” Will., their anatomy, their apices and their endophytic fungus. — Ann. Bot.44: 865–905.Google Scholar
  56. Hanstein, J., 1868: Die Scheitelzellgruppe im Vegetationspunkt der Phanerogamen. — Gratulationsschrift der niederrheinischen Gesellschaft für Natur- und Heilkunde 1868: 109–134.Google Scholar
  57. Hartel, K., 1938: Studien an Vegetationspunkten einheimischer Lycopodien. — Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen125: 126–160.Google Scholar
  58. Hébant, C., 1977a: The conducting tissue of bryophytes. — Vaduz: Cramer.Google Scholar
  59. —, 1977b: Les bryophytes sont-elles des plantes vasculaires régressées? — Bryophytorum Bibliotheca13. Bordeaux, Congres International de Bryologie.Google Scholar
  60. —, 1978: Evidence of division and polarity in apical cells of bryophytes and pteridophytes. — Planta138: 49–52.Google Scholar
  61. Hébant-Mauri, R., 1973: Fonctionnement apical et ramification chez quelques fougéres du genreTrichomanes L. (Hymenophyllacées). — Adansonia, ser. 2,13: 495–526.Google Scholar
  62. —, 1975: Apical segmentation and leaf initiation in the tree fernDicksonia squarrosa. — Canad. J. Bot.53: 764–772.Google Scholar
  63. Holloway, J. E., 1917: The prothallus and young plant ofTmesipteris. — Trans. Proc. New Zealand Inst.50: 1–44.Google Scholar
  64. —, 1939: The gametophyte, embryo and young rhizome ofPsilotum triquetrum Swartz. — Ann. Bot., n.s.,31: 133–336.Google Scholar
  65. Jackman, V. H., 1960: The shoot apex of some New Zealand gymonosperms. — Phytomorphology10: 145–157.Google Scholar
  66. Jacobs, W. P., 1988: Development of procambium, xylem, and phloem in the shoot apex ofSelaginella. — Bot. Gaz.149: 64–70.Google Scholar
  67. Jeffrey, E. C., 1917: The anatomy of woody plants. — Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  68. Johansen, D. A., 1950: Plant embryology. — Waltham, Mass.: Chronica Botanica.Google Scholar
  69. Johnson, M. A., 1933: Origin and development of tissues inEquisetum scirpoides. — Bot. Gaz.94: 469–494.Google Scholar
  70. Kato, M., 1988: The phylogenetic relationship ofOphioglossaceae. — Taxon37: 381–386.Google Scholar
  71. —, 1988: Anatomy of the axillary bud ofHelminthostachys zeylanica (Ophioglossaceae) and its systematic implications. — Bot. Gaz.149: 56–63.Google Scholar
  72. Klekowski, E. J., Kazarinova-Fukshansky, N., Mohr, H., 1985: Shoot apical meristems and mutation: stratified meristems and angiosperm evolution. — Amer. J. Bot.72: 1788–1800.Google Scholar
  73. Kruatrachue, M., Evert, R. F., 1974: Structure and development of sieve elements in the leaf ofIsoetes muricata. — Amer. J. Bot.61: 253–266.Google Scholar
  74. Lamoureux, C. H., 1961: Comparative studies on phloem of vascular cryptogams. — Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Davis.Google Scholar
  75. Leclercq, S., 1954: Are thePsilophytales a starting point or a resulting point? — Svensk Bot. Tidskr.48: 301–315.Google Scholar
  76. Leibig, J., 1931: Ergänzungen zur Entwicklungsgeschichte vonIsoetes lacustris L. — Flora125: 321–358.Google Scholar
  77. Long, A. G., 1975: Further observations on some Lower Carboniferous seeds and cupules. — Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh69: 267–293.Google Scholar
  78. McAlpin, B. W., White, R. A., 1974: Shoot organization in theFilicales: the promeristem. — Amer. J. Bot.61: 562–579.Google Scholar
  79. Mattox, K. R., Stewart, K. D., 1984: Classification of the green algae: a concept based on comparative cytology. — InIrvine, D. E. G., John, D. M., (Eds.): Systematics of the green algae, pp. 29–72. — London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  80. Melchior, R. C., Hall, J. W., 1961: A calamitean shoot apex from the Pennsylvanian of Iowa. — Amer. J. Bot.48: 811–815.Google Scholar
  81. Michaux-Ferriére, N., 1976: Étude comparative, histologique, histochimique et cytologique du bourgeon apical de l'Isoetes setacea durent les periodes de resistance à la secheresse. — Phytomorphology26: 210–219.Google Scholar
  82. —, 1980: Étude structurale, fonctionelle et metabolique du méristème apical jeune de l'Isoetes setacea. — Canad. J. Bot.58: 2506–2512.Google Scholar
  83. Mishler, B. D., Churchill, S. P., 1984: A cladistic approach to the phylogeny of the “bryophytes”. — Brittonia36: 406–424.Google Scholar
  84. —, —, 1985: Transition to a land flora: phylogenetic relationships of the green algae and bryophytes. — Cladistics1: 305–328.Google Scholar
  85. Namboodiri, K. K., Beck, C. B., 1968a: A comparative study of the primary vascular system of conifers. 1. Genera with helical phyllotaxis. — Amer. J. Bot.55: 447–457.Google Scholar
  86. —, —, 1968b: A comparative study of the primary vascular system of conifers. 2. Genera with opposite and whorled phyllotaxis. — Amer. J. Bot.55: 458–463.Google Scholar
  87. —, —, 1968c: A comparative study of the primary vascular system of conifers. 3. Stelar evolution in gymnosperms. — Amer. J. Bot.55: 464–472.Google Scholar
  88. Newman, I. V., 1961: Pattern in the meristems of vascular plants. 2. A review of shoot apical meristems of gymnosperms, with comments on apical biology and taxonomy, and a statement of some fundamental concepts. — Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales86: 9–59.Google Scholar
  89. —, 1965: Pattern of the meristems of vascular plants. 3. Pursuing the patterns in the apical meristem where no cell is a permanent cell. — J. Linn. Soc. London Bot.59: 185–214.Google Scholar
  90. Ogura, Y., 1972: Comparative anatomy of vegetative organs of the pteridophytes, 2nd edn. — InLinsbauer, K., (Ed.): Handbuch der Pflanzenanatomie7, 3. — Berlin: Gebrüder Borntraeger.Google Scholar
  91. Philipson, W. R., 1946: Studies in the development of the inflorescence. 1. The capitulum ofBellis perennis L. — Ann. Bot. n.s.10: 257–270.Google Scholar
  92. —, 1947: Some observations on the apical meristems of leafy and flowering shoots. — J. Linn. Soc. London, Bot.53: 187–193.Google Scholar
  93. —, 1954: Organization of the shoot apex in dicotyledons. — Phytomorphology4: 70–75.Google Scholar
  94. —, 1966: Introduction to session on the development of the shoot. — InPrát, S., (Ed.): Differentiation of apical meristems and some problems of ecological regulation of development of plants, pp. 13–19. — Prague: Academia.Google Scholar
  95. —, 1978: The importance of living collections for studies on phylogeny within the dicotyledons. — InStone, B., (Ed.): The role and goals of tropical botanic gardens. — Kuala Lumpur: University of Malaysia.Google Scholar
  96. —, 1982: Commentary on ProfessorTomlinson's paper. — InSattler, R., (Ed.): Axioms and principles of plant construction, pp. 184–186. — The Hague: W. Junk.Google Scholar
  97. —, 1963: Vascular patterns in dicotyledons. — Bot. Rev.29: 382–404.Google Scholar
  98. —, 1971: The vascular cambium: its development and activity. — London: Chapman & Hall.Google Scholar
  99. Phillips, T. L., 1979: Reproduction of heterosporous arborescent lycopods in the Mississipian — Pennsylvanian of Euamerica. — Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol.27: 239–289.Google Scholar
  100. Polito, V. S., 1979: Cell division kinetics in the shoot apical meristem ofCeratopteris thalictroides Brong. with special reference to the apical cell. — Amer. J. Bot.66: 485–493.Google Scholar
  101. Popham, R. A., 1951: Principal types of vegetative shoot apex organization in vascular plants. — Ohio J. Sci.51: 249–270.Google Scholar
  102. Rauh, W., Falk, H., 1959:Stylites E. Armstutz, eine neueIsoetaceae aus den Hochanden Perus. 1. Teil: Morphologie, Anatomie und Entwicklungsgeschichte der Vegetationsorgane. — Sitzungsber. Heidelberger Akad. Wiss. 1959: 1–83.Google Scholar
  103. Remy, W., Remy, R., Haas, H., Schultka, St., Franzmeyer, F., 1980:Sciadophyton Steinmann — ein Gametophyt aus dem Siegen. — Argumenta Palaeobotanica6: 73–94.Google Scholar
  104. Rogers, S. O., Bonnett, H. T., 1989: Evidence for apical initial cells in the vegetative shoot apex ofHedera helix cv. ‘goldheart’. — Amer. J. Bot.76: 539–545.Google Scholar
  105. Roth, I., 1963: Histogenese der Luftsprosse und Bildung der “dichotomen” Verzweigungen vonPsilotum nudum. — Adv. Front. Pl. Sci.7: 157–180.Google Scholar
  106. Rothwell, G. W., 1984: The apex ofStigmaria (Lycopsida), rooting organ ofLepidodendrales. — Amer. J. Bot.71: 1031–1034.Google Scholar
  107. Sam, S. J., 1984: The structure of the apical meristem ofIsoetes engelmannii, I. riparia andI. macrospora (Isoetales). — Bot. J. Linn. Soc.89: 77–84.Google Scholar
  108. Schmidt, A., 1924: Histologische Studien an phanerogamen Vegetationspunkten. — Bot. Archiv8: 345–404.Google Scholar
  109. Schüpp, O., 1966: Meristeme, Wachstum und Formbildung in den Teilungsgeweben höherer Pflanzen. — Basel: Birkhäuser.Google Scholar
  110. Siegert, A., 1964: Morphologische, entwicklungsgeschichtliche und systematische Studien andPsilotum triquetrum Sw. 1. Allgemeiner Teil. Erstarkung und primäres Dickenwachstum der Sprosse. — Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen40: 121–157.Google Scholar
  111. —, 1974: Die Verzweigung der Selaginellen unter Berücksichtigung der Keimungsgeschichte. — Beitr. Biol. Pflanzen50: 21–112.Google Scholar
  112. Slade, B. F., 1971: Stelar evolution in vascular plants. — New Phytol.70: 879–884.Google Scholar
  113. Sluiman, H., 1985: A cladistic evaluation of the lower and higher green plants (Viridiplantae). — Pl. Syst. Evol.149: 217–232.Google Scholar
  114. Stevenson, D. W., 1976a: Shoot apex organization and origin of the rhizome-borne roots and their associated gaps inDennstaedtia cicutaria. — Amer. J. Bot.63: 673–678.Google Scholar
  115. —, 1976b: The cytohistological and cytohistochemical zonation of the shoot apex ofBotrychium multifidum. — Amer. J. Bot.63: 852–856.Google Scholar
  116. Stewart, W. N., 1983: Palaeobotany and the evolution of plants. — Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  117. Stockey, R. A., 1975: Seeds and embryos ofAraucaria mirabilis. — Amer. J. Bot.62: 856–868.Google Scholar
  118. Stopes, M. C., Watson, D. M. S., 1908: On the present distribution and origin of the calcareous concretions in coal seams, known as “coal balls”. — Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, ser. B,200: 167–218.Google Scholar
  119. Taylor, T. N., 1988: The origin of land plants: some answers, more questions. — Taxon37: 805–833.Google Scholar
  120. —, 1979: Pollination biology and reproduction in early seed plants. — Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol.27: 329–355.Google Scholar
  121. Thomas, B. A., Spicer, R. A., 1986: The evolution and palaeobiology and land plants. — Portland, Oregon: Dioscorides Press.Google Scholar
  122. Tomlinson, P. B., Posluszny, U., 1977: Features of dichotomizing apices inFlagellaria indica (monocotyledones). — Amer. J. Bot.64: 1057–1065.Google Scholar
  123. Trant, C. A., Gensel, P. G., 1985: Branching inPsilophyton: a new species from the Lower Devonian of New Brunswick, Canada. — Amer. J. Bot.72: 1256–1273.Google Scholar
  124. Turner, J. J., 1924: Origin and development of the vascular system ofLycopodium lucidulum. — Bot. Gaz.78: 215–225.Google Scholar
  125. Vidal, R., 1912: La croissance terminal de la tige et la formation des bourgeons chez l'Equisetum palustre. — Ann. Sci. Nat. (Bot.) Ser. 9,15: 1–38.Google Scholar
  126. Vladesco, M. A., 1935: Recherches morphologiques et expérimentales sur d'embryogenie et l'organogenie des fougéres leptosporangiées. — Rev. Gen. Bot.47: 513–528; 564–588.Google Scholar
  127. Wand, A., 1914: Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Scheitelwachstums und der Verzweigung beiSelaginella. — Flora106: 237–263.Google Scholar
  128. Ward, M., 1954: Fertilization inPhlebodium aureum J. Sm. — Phytomorphology4: 1–17.Google Scholar
  129. Wardlaw, C. W., 1955: Embryogenesis in plants. — London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  130. Warmbrodt, R. D., Evert, R. F., 1974: Structure and development of the sieve element ofLycopodium lucidulum. — Amer. J. Bot.61: 267–277.Google Scholar
  131. Webster, T. R., Jagels, R., 1977: Morphology and development of aerial roots ofSelaginella martensii grown in moist containers. — Canad. J. Bot.55: 2149–2158.Google Scholar
  132. —, 1963: Morphology and development of the root ofSelaginella densa Rydb. — Phytomorphology13: 367–376.Google Scholar
  133. —, —, 1964: Developmental morphology of the root ofSelaginella krausiana Hieron. — Canad. J. Bot.42: 1665–1676.Google Scholar
  134. —, —, 1967: Developmental morphology of the root ofSelaginella martensii Spring. — Canad. J. Bot.45: 395–404.Google Scholar
  135. West, C., Takeda, H., 1915: OnIsoetes japonica A. Br. — Trans. Linn. Soc. London8: 333–376.Google Scholar
  136. Wetmore, R. H., Smith, A. C., 1942: Development of shoot system inLycopodium. — Amer. J. Bot.29: 195.Google Scholar
  137. Wigglesworth, G., 1907: The young sporophyte ofLycopodium complanatum andLycopodium clavatum. — Ann. Bot.21: 211–234.Google Scholar
  138. Zimmerman, M. H., Tomlinson, P. B., 1972: The vascular system of monocotyledonous stems. — Bot. Gaz.133: 141–155.Google Scholar
  139. —, —, 1974: Vascular patterns in palm stems: variations of theRhapis principle. — J. Arnold Arbor.55: 402–424.Google Scholar
  140. —, —,Leclaire, J., 1974: Vascular construction and development in the stems of certainPandanaceae. — Bot. J. Linn. Soc.68: 21–41.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. R. Philipson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant and Microbial SciencesUniversity of CanterburyChristchurchNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations