• Background: Evaluation of changes in the heterophoric condition of 100 normal individuals over a 20-year period. • Methods: A reprospective study was undertaken. Charts of 100 normal men were reviewed. Individual changes in the heterophoric status were recorded over a 20-year period. The average value of the phoria at age 18–22 years was compared with the average value at age 34–38 years. Measurements were taken for near and distance fixation. No one was heterotropic. Changes in convergence and accommodation were also calculated. • Results: A 0.9 ± 1.7 prism diopter increase in esophoria for distance fixation and a 0.6±2.5 prism diopter increase in exophoria for near fixation were found. These changes were statistically significant (P<0.001 andP<0.02 respectively). The near point of convergence receded by 0.5 ± 1.1 cm (P<0.001), and a decrease in accommodation over time of 2.8 ± 1.4 diopters was found (P<0.001). • Conclusion: An increase in esophoria for distance fixation and a exophoria for near fixation was found in a 20-year follow-up of 100 normal subjects.
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Spierer, A., Hefetz, L. Normal heterophoric changes: 20 years' follow-up. Graefe's Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 235, 345–348 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00937281
- Public Health
- Normal Individual
- Distance Fixation
- Individual Change
- Prism Diopter