Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Ontogeny of intruding non-periplasmodial tapetum in the wild chicory,Cichorium intybus (Compositae)

  • 59 Accesses

  • 23 Citations


The tapetal development ofCichorium intybus L. is investigated using LM and TEM and discussed in relation to the development in other species. During the second meiotic division the tapetal cells become binucleate and lose their cell walls. They intrude the loculus at the time of microspore release from the meiotic callose walls, which means that a locular cavity is never present in this species. During pollen development they tightly junct the exine, especially near the tips of the spines. During the two-celled pollen grain stage they degenerate and most of their content turns into pollenkitt. Until anther dehiscence they keep their individuality, which means that these intruding tapetal cells never fuse to form a periplasmodium. The ultrastructural cytoplasmatic changes during this development are discussed in relation to possible functions.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Ahlstrand, L., 1985: Embryology ofCalenduleae (Compositae). — Nordic J. Bot.5: 79–97.

  2. Anderson, L. C., 1970: Embryology ofChrysothamnus (Asteraceae, Compositae). — Madroño20: 337–342.

  3. Blackmore, S., Barnes, H. S., 1985:Cosmos pollen ontogeny: a scanning electron microscope study. — Protoplasma126: 91–99.

  4. Chiarugi, A., 1927: L'evoluzione delle cellule del tappeto e la formazione del periplasmodio in alcuneAsteraceae. — N. G. Bot. Ital.34: 783–828.

  5. Coleman, A. W., Goff, L. J., 1985: Applications of fluorochromes to pollen biology. 1°. Mithromycin-8 4,6-diamino 2-phenylindole (DAPI) as vital stains and for quantitation of nuclear DNA. — Stain Technol.60: 145–154.

  6. Dickinson, H. G., 1973: The role of plastids in the formation of pollen grain coatings. — Cytobios.8: 25–40.

  7. —, 1982: The development of pollen. — Rev. Cytol. Biol. Veget. Bot.5: 5–19.

  8. —,Bell, P. R., 1973: The identification of sporopollenin in sections of resin embedded tissues by controlled acetolysis. — Stain Technol.48: 17–20.

  9. —,Potter, U., 1976: The development of patterning in the alveolar sexine ofCosmos bipinnatus. — New Phytol.76: 543–550.

  10. Gori, P., 1971: A new clearing squash techniqes in the anther cavity ofAllium sativum, clone Piemonte. — J. Ultrastr. Res.81: 158–162.

  11. Herr, J. M. Jr., 1971: A new clearing squash technique for the study of ovule development in angiosperms. — Amer. J. Bot.58: 785–790.

  12. Heslop-Harrison, J., 1969: An acetolysis-resistant membrane investing tapetum and sporogenous tissue in the anthers of certainCompositae. — Canad. J. Bot.47: 541–542.

  13. Hesse, M., 1978: Entwicklungsgeschichte und Ultrastruktur des Pollenkitts beiTilia (Tiliaceae). — Pl. Syst. Evol.129: 13–30.

  14. Horner, H. T. Jr., 1977: A comparative light- and electron microscopic study of microsporogenesis in male-fertile and cytoplasmic male-sterile sunflower (Helianthus annuus). — Amer. J. Bot.64: 745–749.

  15. —,Pearson, C. B., 1978: Pollen wall and aperture development inHelianthus annuus (Compositae:Heliantheae). — Amer. J. Bot.65: 293–309.

  16. Hughes, J., McCully, M. E., 1975: The use of an optical brightener in the study of plant structure. — Stain Technol.50: 319–329.

  17. Izhar, S., Frankel, R., 1971: Mechanism of male sterility inPetunia: the relationship between pH and callase activity in the anthers and the breakdown of the microsporogenesis. — Theor. Appl. Gen.44: 104–108.

  18. Juel, H. D., 1915: Untersuchungen über die Auflösung der Tapetenzellen in den Pollensäcken der Angiospermen. — Jahrb. Wiss. Bot.56: 37–364.

  19. Kamelina, O. P., 1983: Basic results of the comparative embryological investigation ofDipsacaceae andMoriniaceae. — InErdelska, O., (Ed.): Fertilization and embryogenesis in ovulated plants, pp. 343–346. — Bratislava: Veda.

  20. Kapil, R. M., Sethi, S. B., 1962: Gametogenesis and seed development inAinsliaea aptera. — Phytomorphology12: 222–234.

  21. Keijzer, C. J., 1987: The processes of anther dehiscence and pollen dispersal. 2. The formation and the transfer mechanism of pollenkitt, cell-wall development of the loculus tissues and a function of the orbicules in pollen dispersal. — New Phytol.105: 499–507.

  22. —,Cresti, M., 1987: A comparison of anther tissue development in male sterileAloe vera and male fertileAloe ciliaris. — Ann. Bot.59: 533–542.

  23. Lombardo, G., Carraro, L., 1976: Tapetal ultrastructural changes during pollen development. 3. Studies onGentiana acaulis. — Caryologia29: 345–349.

  24. O'Brien, T. P., McCully, M. E., 1981: The study of plant structure — principles and selected methods. — Melbourne: Thermorcarphi Pty Ltd.

  25. Pacini, E., Casadoro, G., 1981: Tapetum plastids ofOlea europaea. — Protoplasma106: 289–296.

  26. —,Franchi, G. G., 1983: Pollen grain development inSmilax aspera L. and possible function of the loculus. — InMulcahy, D. L., Ottaviano, E., (Eds.): Pollen: biology and implications for plant breeding, pp. 183–190. — New York: Elsevier Biomedical.

  27. —,Juniper, B. E., 1979: The ultrastructure of pollen grain development in the olive (Olea europaea). 2. Secretion by the tapetal cells. — New Phytol.83: 145–174.

  28. —, —, 1983: The ultrastructure of the formation and development of the amoeboid tapetum inArum italicum Miller. — Protoplasma117: 116–129.

  29. —,Franchi, G. G., Hesse, M., 1985: The tapetum: its form, function, and possible phylogeny inEmbryophyta. — Pl. Syst. Evol.149: 155–185.

  30. Pearse, A. G. E., 1968: Histochemistry, theoretical and applied. 1. — London: J. & A. Churchill Ltd.

  31. Pettitt, J. M., 1979: Developmental mechanisms in heterospory: cytochemical demonstration of spore wall enzymes associated with lectins, polysaccharides and lipids in water ferns. — J. Cell Sci.36: 61–82.

  32. Reznickova, S. A., Willemse, M. T. M., 1980: Formation of pollen in the anther ofLilium. 2. The function of surrounding tissues in the formation of pollen and pollen wall. — Acta Bot. Neerl.29: 141–156.

  33. Roland-Heydacker, F., 1979: Aspects ultrastructuraux de l'ontogenie du pollen et du tapis chezMahonia aquifolium Nutt.,Berberidaceae. — Pollen & Spores21: 259–278.

  34. Sankara Rao, K., Chinnappa, C. C., 1983: Studies inGentianaceae. Microsporangium and pollen. — Canad. J. Bot.61: 324–336.

  35. Shivanna, K. R., Johri, B. M., 1985: The angiosperm pollen: structure and function. — New Delhi: Wiley Easter Ltd.

  36. Steer, M. W., 1977: Differention of the tapetum inAvena. The cell surface. — J. Cell Sci.25: 125.

  37. Stieglitz, H., 1977: Role of 1,3-glucan in postmeiotic microspore release. — Develop. Biol.57: 87–97.

  38. Stone, D. E., Sellers, S. C., Kress, J., 1979: Ontogeny of exine-less pollen inHeliconia, a banana relative. — Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard.66: 701–730.

  39. —, —, —, 1981: Ontogenetic and evolutionary implications of a neotenous exine inTapeinochilos (Zingiberales: Costaceae) pollen. — Ann. Bot.68: 49–63.

  40. Tiwari, S. C., Gunning, B. E. S., 1986a: Development of tapetum and microspores inCanna L.: an example of an invasive but not syncytial tapetum. — Ann. Bot.51: 551–563.

  41. —, —, 1986b: Cytoskeleton, cell surface and the development of invasive plasmodial tapetum inTradescantia virginiana L. — Protoplasma133: 89–99.

  42. —, —, 1986c: An ultrastructural, cytochemical and immunofluorescence study of postmeiotic development of plasmodial tapetum inTradescantia virgiana L. and its relevance to the pathway of sporopollenin secretion. — Protoplasma133: 100–114.

  43. —, —, 1986d: Colchicine inhibits plasmodium formation and disrupts pathways of sporopollenin secretion in the anther tapetum ofTradescantia virginiana L. — Protoplasma133: 115–128.

  44. —, —, 1986e: Development and cell surface of a non-syncytial invasive tapetum inCanna: ultrastructural, freeze-substitution, cytochemical and immunofluorescence study. — Protoplasma134: 1–16.

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Pacini, E., Keijzer, C.J. Ontogeny of intruding non-periplasmodial tapetum in the wild chicory,Cichorium intybus (Compositae). Pl Syst Evol 167, 149–164 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00936403

Download citation

Key words

  • Angiosperms
  • Compositae
  • Cichorium intybus
  • Tapetum
  • pollen
  • exine
  • pollenkitt