Field collections and 296 herbarium sheets were examined for 27 morphometric variables. A priori species identifcation was based on geographical distribution except forH. californicum, a diploid species primarily occurring in California and differing from the much more widespread tetraploidH. brachyantherum that thrives in N. America and N.E. Asia;H. capense grows in S. Africa andH. secalinum mainly in Europe. Various cluster analyses were used followed by cluster recovery verification. Classificatory discriminant analysis and validation by the bootstrap yielded 85–90% overall total correct classification of the four species. Canonical analysis revealed thatH. californicum occupies an intermediate phenetic position among the other three distinct species. Factors of shape differences were unravelled and portrayed by shearing. A revised key to species was drawn up.
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Baum, B.R., Bailey, L.G. Differentiation of fourHordeum sect.Stenostachys spp. (Poaceae: Triticeae) using multivariate morphometrics. Pl Syst Evol 166, 211–223 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00935950
- Hordeum brachyantherum
- H. californicum
- H. capense
- H. secalinum
- cluster analysis
- classificatory discriminant analysis
- canonical analysis
- sheared principal component analysis
- bootstrap validation
- identification key