Detection ofTheileria parva in the salivary glands ofRhipicephalus appendiculatus: evaluation of staining methods
- 79 Downloads
A comparison of ten methods for staining tick salivary glands for detection ofTheileria parva infection from ticks fed on rabbits for various periods was undertaken. Staining with azure without hydrochloric acid hydrolysis was found to be the most reliable method for detection of the presporozoite stages (sporoblasts) ofT. parva in the salivary gland acini of unfedRhipicephalus appendiculatus and could be applied to field ticks. All the stains proved suitable for the detection and quantitation of sporozoites in ticks fed for 4 days on rabbits. The capacity of the stains to allow detection of early stages ofT. parva differed, but it became more reliable during tick feeding as sporoblasts developed and matured. Giemsa's stain and Feulgen's stain followed by superimposition of Giemsa's stain were superior to other stains for the detection and quantitation of immature salivary gland stages in feeding ticks.
KeywordsHydrochloric Acid Salivary Gland Acid Hydrolysis Reliable Method Staining Method
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bailey KP (1960) Notes on the rearing ofRhipicephalus appendiculatus and their infection withTheileria parva for experimental transmission. Bull Epizoot Dis Afr 8:33–43Google Scholar
- Bishop R, Sohanpal B, Kariuki DP, Young AS, Nene V, Baylis H, Allsopp BA, Spooner PR, Dolan TT, Morzaria SP (1992) Detection of a carrier state inTheileria parva infected cattle using polymerase chain reaction. Parasitology 102:347–353Google Scholar
- Blewett DA, Branagan D (1973) The demonstration ofTheileria parva infection in intactRhipicephalus appendiculatus salivary glands. Trop Anim Health Prod 5:27–34Google Scholar
- Brocklesby DW, Barnett SF, Scott GR (1961) Morbidity and mortality rates of East Coast fever (Theileria parva infection) and their application to drug screening procedures. Br Vet J 117:529–531Google Scholar
- Chen PP, Conrad PA, Ole-Moiyoi OK, Brown WC, Dolan TT (1990) DNA probes detectTheileria parva in the salivary gland ofRhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks. Parasitol Res 77:590–594Google Scholar
- Cowdry EV, Ham AW (1932) Studies on East Coast fever. The life cycle of the parasite in the tick. Parasitology 2:1–49Google Scholar
- Fawcett DW, Young AS, Leitch BL (1985) Sporogony inTheileria (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida). A comparative ultrastructural study. J Submicrosc Cytol 17:299–314Google Scholar
- Goddeeris BH, Katende JM, Irvin AD, Chumo RSC (1982) Indirect fluorescent antibody test for experimental and epidemiological studies on East Coast fever (Theileria parva infection in cattle): evaluation of a cell culture schizont antigen fixed and stored in suspension. Res Vet Sci 33:360–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pearse AGE (1985) Histochemistry: theoretical and applied, vol II, 4th edn. Churchill Livingstone, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
- Steel RGD, Torrie JH (1980) Principles and procedures of statistics. A biometrical approach, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Young AS, Leitch BL, Stagg DA, Dolan TT (1983) Identification ofTheileria infections in living salivary glands of ticks. Parasitology 86:519–528Google Scholar