Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

The trypanosome surface glycoprotein procyclin is expressed only on tsetse fly vector stages of the parasite

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Black SJ, Jack RM, Morrison WI (1983) Host-parasite interactions which influence the virulence ofTrypanosome (trypanozoon) brucei brucei organisms. Acta Trop 40:11–18

  2. Black SJ, Sendashonga CN, O'Brien C, Borowy NK, Naessens M, Webster P, Murray M (1985) Regulation of parasitaemia in mice infected withTrypanosoma brucei. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 117:93–118

  3. Brun R, Schonenberger M (1979) Cultivation andin vitro cloning of procyclic culture forms ofTrypanosoma brucei in a semi-defined medium. Acta Trop 36:289–292

  4. Brun R, Schoenberger M (1981) Stimulating effect of citrate and cis-aconitate on the transformation ofTrypanosoma brucei bloodstream forms to procyclic formsin vitro. Z Parasitenkd 66:17–24

  5. Czichos J, Nonnenggesser C, Overath P (1986)Trypanosoma brucei: cis-aconitate and temperature reduction as triggers of synchronous transformation of bloodstream to procyclic trypomastigotesin vitro. Exp Parasitol 62:283–291

  6. Jack RM, Black SJ, Reed SL, Davis CE (1984) Indomethacin promotes differentiation ofTrypanosoma brucei. Infect Immun 43:445–448

  7. Jennings FW, Urquhart GM (1985) Induction of human-sensitiveTrypanosoma brucei stabilates into human-resistant “T. rhodesiense”. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg 79:80–85

  8. Reed SL, Fierer AS, Goddard DR, Colmerauer MEM, Davis CE (1985) Effect of theophylline on differentiation ofTrypanosoma brucei. Infect Immun 49:844–847

  9. Richardson JP, Jenni L, Beecroft RL, Pearson TW (1986) Procyclic tsetse fly midgut forms and culture forms of African trypanosomes share stage-and species-specific surface antigens identified by monoclonal antibodies. J Immunol 136:2259–2264

  10. Richardson JP, Beecroft RP, Tolson DL, Liu MK, Pearson TW (1988) Procyclin: an unusual immunodominant glycoprotein surface antigen from the procyclic stage of African trypanosomes. Molec Biochem Parasitol 31:203–216

  11. Roditi I, Schwarz H, Pearson TW, Beecroft RP, Liu MK, Richardson JP, Buhring HJ, Pleiss J, Bulow R, Williams RO, Overath P (1989) Procyclin gene expression and loss of the variant surface glycoprotein during differentiation ofTrypanosoma brucei. J Cell Biol 108:737–746

  12. Sendashonga CN, Black SJ (1982) Humoral responses againstTrypanosoma brucei variable surface antigens are induced by degenerating parasites. Parasite Immunol 4:245–257

  13. Shapiro SZ, Naessens J, Leisegang B, Moloo SK, Magondu J (1984) Analysis by flow cytometry of DNA synthesis during the life cycle of African trypanosomes. Acta Trop 41:313–323

  14. Shapiro SZ (1986)Trypanosoma brucei: Release of variant surface glycoproteins during the parasite life cycle. Exp Parasitol 64:432–437

  15. Smith CJ, Levine RF, Mansfield JM (1982) Cloning of African trypanosomes in mice immunosuppressed by cyclophosphamide treatment. Am J Trop Med Hyg 31:1098–1102

  16. Vickerman K (1985) Development cycles and biology of pathogenic trypanosomes. Br Med Bull 41:105–114

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to T. W. Pearson.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Colmerauer, M.E.M., Davis, C.E. & Pearson, T.W. The trypanosome surface glycoprotein procyclin is expressed only on tsetse fly vector stages of the parasite. Parasitol Res 76, 171–173 (1989).

Download citation


  • Surface Glycoprotein
  • Vector Stage