Origins of life

, Volume 5, Issue 1–2, pp 227–237

From proteinoid microsphere to contemporary cell: Formation of internucleotide and peptide bonds by proteinoid particles

  • Sidney W. Fox
  • John R. Jungck
  • Tadayoshi Nakashima
Part IV/Precellular Organization

Abstract

Proteinoid microspheres of appropriate sorts promote the conversion of ATP to adenine dinucleotide and adenine trinucleotide. Other microparticles composed of basic proteinoid and enzymically synthesized poly A cause the conversion of ATP and phenylalanine to various peptides of phenylalanine. When viewed in a context with the origin and properties of proteinoid microspheres, these results model the origin from a protocell of a more contemporary type of cell able to synthesize its own polyamino acids and polynucleotides. Related earlier experiments explain in part the origin of the genetic code and mechanism.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baldwin, E.: 1957,Dynamic Aspects of Biochemistry (3rd ed.), Cambridge University Press, London.Google Scholar
  2. Dose, K.: 1971, in A. W. Schwartz (ed.),Theory and Experiment in Exiobiology, Vol. 1, Wolters Noordhoff, Groningen, The Netherlands, p. 41.Google Scholar
  3. Dose, K. and Rauchfuss, H.: 1972, in D. L. Rohlfing and A. I. Oparin (eds.)Molecular Evolution: Prebiological and Biological, Plenum Press, New York, p. 199.Google Scholar
  4. Ehrensvärd, G.: 1962,Life: Origin and Development, University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  5. Fox, S. W.: 1971, in R. Buvet and C. Ponnamperuma (eds.),Chemical Evolution and the Origin of Life, North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, p. 252.Google Scholar
  6. Fox, S. W.: 1973a,Naturwissenschaften 60, 359.Google Scholar
  7. Fox, S. W.: 1973b,Pure Appl. Chem. 34, 641.Google Scholar
  8. Fox, S. W. and Dose, K.: 1972,Molecular Evolution and the Origin of Life, Freeman and Co., San Francisco.Google Scholar
  9. Fox, S. W., McCauley, R. J., and Wood, A.: 1967,Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 20, 773.Google Scholar
  10. Fox, S. W., Lacey, J. C. Jr., and Nakashima, T.: 1971, in D. Ribbons and F. Woessner (eds.),Nucleic Acid-Protein Interactions, North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, p. 113.Google Scholar
  11. Hsu, L. L., Brooke, S., and Fox, S. W.: 1971,Currents Mod. Biol. 4, 12.Google Scholar
  12. Jungck, J. R. and Fox, S. W.: 1973,Naturwissenschaften 60, 425.Google Scholar
  13. Kenyon, D. H.: 1973,Science 180, 789.Google Scholar
  14. Lacey, J. C., Jr. and Pruitt, K. M.: 1968,Nature 228, 799.Google Scholar
  15. Lederberg, J.: 1959,Angew. Chem. 71, 473.Google Scholar
  16. Lehninger, A. L.: 1970,Biochemistry, Worth and Co., New York.Google Scholar
  17. Leng, M. and Felsenfeld, G.: 1966,Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 56, 1325.Google Scholar
  18. Marei, N., Gadallah, A. I., and Kilgore, W. W.: 1972,Phytochemistry 11, 529.Google Scholar
  19. Nakashima, T. and Fox, S. W.: 1972,Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 69, 106.Google Scholar
  20. Nakashima, T., Lacey, J. C. Jr., Jungck, J., and Fox, S. W.: 1970,Naturwissenschaften 57, 67.Google Scholar
  21. Nirenberg, M.: 1967, in G. C. Quarton, T. Melnechuk and F. O. Schmitt (eds.),The Neurosciences, Rockefeller University Press, New York, p. 143.Google Scholar
  22. Oparin, A. I.: 1957,The Origin of Life on Earth, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  23. Oparin, A. I.: 1966,The Origin and Initial Development of Life, Meditsina Publishing House, Moscow.Google Scholar
  24. Prosser, C. L.: 1970, in J. Moore (ed.),Ideas in Evolution and Behavior, Natural History Press, Garden City, N.Y., p. 357.Google Scholar
  25. Ryan, J. and Fox, S. W.: 1973,Biosystems 5, in press.Google Scholar
  26. Szent Gyorgyi, A.: 1972, in D. L. Rohlfing and A. I. Oparin (eds.),Molecular Evolution: Prebiological and Biological, Plenum Press, New York, p. 111.Google Scholar
  27. Van Niel, C. B.: 1956, in A. J. Kluyver and C. B. Van Niel (eds.),The Microbe's Contribution to Biology, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., p. 165.Google Scholar
  28. Waehneldt, T. V. and Fox, S. W.: 1968,Biochim. Biophys. Acta 160, 239.Google Scholar
  29. Wald, G.: 1954,Sci. Am. 191 (2), 44.Google Scholar
  30. Woese, C. R.: 1968,Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 59, 110.Google Scholar
  31. Yuki, A. and Fox, S. W.: 1969,Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 36, 657.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sidney W. Fox
    • 1
  • John R. Jungck
    • 1
  • Tadayoshi Nakashima
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Molecular and Cellular EvolutionUniversity of MiamiCoral GablesUSA

Personalised recommendations