Origins of life

, Volume 5, Issue 1–2, pp 227–237 | Cite as

From proteinoid microsphere to contemporary cell: Formation of internucleotide and peptide bonds by proteinoid particles

  • Sidney W. Fox
  • John R. Jungck
  • Tadayoshi Nakashima
Part IV/Precellular Organization


Proteinoid microspheres of appropriate sorts promote the conversion of ATP to adenine dinucleotide and adenine trinucleotide. Other microparticles composed of basic proteinoid and enzymically synthesized poly A cause the conversion of ATP and phenylalanine to various peptides of phenylalanine. When viewed in a context with the origin and properties of proteinoid microspheres, these results model the origin from a protocell of a more contemporary type of cell able to synthesize its own polyamino acids and polynucleotides. Related earlier experiments explain in part the origin of the genetic code and mechanism.


Peptide Organic Chemistry Geochemistry Adenine Phenylalanine 
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Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sidney W. Fox
    • 1
  • John R. Jungck
    • 1
  • Tadayoshi Nakashima
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Molecular and Cellular EvolutionUniversity of MiamiCoral GablesUSA

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