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Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde

, Volume 69, Issue 5, pp 551–570 | Cite as

A review of the biology and transmission ecology of African bovine species of the genusSchistosoma

  • N. Ø. Christensen
  • A. Mutani
  • F. Frandsen
Review Article

Abstract

The present paper reviews the information available concerning the biology and transmission ecology of the African bovine speciesSchistosoma bovis, S. mattheei, S. margrebowiei andS. leiperi. Criteria for species identification (egg morphology, intermediate host spectra, definitive host-parasite relationships, etc.) are listed and the geographical distribution of the four species and factors determining the relative occurrence within their overall distributional ranges are described.S. bovis andS. mattheei occur north and south of 10° S, repectively, andS. margrebowiei occurs mainly, andS. leiperi only, in southern central Africa. Definitive host-related factors (susceptibility, water contact pattern, etc.) providing the background for being a primary definitive host and the primary definitive host spectra for the four schistosome species are deseribed. The primary definitive host spectrum forS. margrebowiei andS. leiperi comprise lechwe, puku and waterbuck, forS. mattheei lechwe, puku, waterbuck plus cattle, and forS. bovis cattle and possibly also some of the listed antelope species. In addition, wild bovines and cattle may provide a reservoir ofS. mattheei andS. margrebowiei in humans, but wild bovines and domestic stock play no major role in the transmission of other human species of schistosomes. The intermediate snail host spectra ofS. mattheei andS. leiperi only comprise members of theBulinus africanus species complex;S. bovis is transmitted by members of theB. truncatus, B. africanus andB. forskalii species groups, andS. margrebowiei is transmitted by members of theB. forskalli species group and possibly also by members of theB. tropicus andB. truncatus species groups. Factors determining the transmission ecology of the four schistosome species, and thereby the epidemiology of bovine schistosomiasis, are discussed. Influential factors comprise environmental conditions mediated via the effect of these on the size of the snail host population and on the rate of the intramolluscan development, behavioural patterns of the definitive host population and the course of the infection in the definitive host as related to aspects of susceptibility and level of endemicity. The epidemiological pattern (prevalence and intensity of infection, seasonality of transmission, etc.) is described and exemplified, and it is finally concluded that the increasing water conservation and changing methods of husbandry may result in bovine schistosomiasis becoming a major veterinary problem in Africa.

Keywords

Schistosomiasis Host Population Definitive Host Contact Pattern Snail Host 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Ø. Christensen
    • 1
  • A. Mutani
    • 1
  • F. Frandsen
    • 1
  1. 1.Danish Bilharziasis LaboratoryCharlottenlundDenmark

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