Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde

, Volume 68, Issue 1, pp 7–14 | Cite as

Interaction ofTrypanosoma cruzi with macrophages in vitro: Dissociation of the attachment and internalization phases by low temperature and cytochalasin B

  • M. N. L. de Meirelles
  • T. C. de Araújo Jorge
  • W. de Souza
Original Investigations


Chicken macrophages, obtained by cultivation of blood monocytes, were infected with epimastigote and bloodstream trypomastigote forms ofTrypanosoma cruzi strain Y. The percentage of macrophages containing parasites within parasitophorous vacuoles and of flagellates attached to cell surfaces was determined. By incubation of the macrophages at 4°C or in the presence of cytochalasin B it was possible to dissociate the attachment from the internalization phases in the process of infection of macrophages. Both treatments had a marked effect on the internalization of epimastigote and trypomastigote forms. Cytochalasin B treatment and placement of the macrophages at 4° C before infection inhibited this process by about 99 and 96%, respectively. These results suggest that endocytosis is the principal mechanism of internalization ofT. cruzi by macrophages. They show also that epimastigote and trypomastigote forms ofT. cruzi have a different rate of adhesion to the macrophage surface.


Cell Surface Marked Effect Cytochalasin Blood Monocyte Principal Mechanism 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alcântara A, Brener Z (1978) Thein vitro interaction ofTrypanosoma cruzi bloodstream forms and mouse peritoneal macrophages. Acta Trop 35:209–219Google Scholar
  2. Alexander J (1975) Effect of the antiphagocytic agent Cytochalasin B on macrophage invasion byLeishmania mexicana promastigotes andTrypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. J Protozool 22:237–240Google Scholar
  3. Andrade SG (1974) Caracterização de cepas deTrypanosoma cruzi isoladas do recôncavo baiano. Rev Patol Trop 3:65–121Google Scholar
  4. Axline SG, Reaven EP (1974) Inhibition of phagocytosis and plasma membrane mobility of the cultivated macrophage by Cytochalasin B. J Cell Biol 62:647–659Google Scholar
  5. Colli W, Andrews NW, Zingales B (1981) Surface determinants in american trypanosomes. In Schweiger, H.G., Schweiger, R., eds. International Cell Biology, Springer-Verlag. Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp 401–410Google Scholar
  6. De Souza W, Arguello C, Martinez-Palomo A, Trissl D, Gonzales-Robles A, Chiari E (1977) Surface charge ofTrypanosoma cruzi: Binding of cationized ferritin and measurement of cellular electrophoretic mobility. J Protozool 24:411–415Google Scholar
  7. De Souza W, Martinez-Palomo A, Gonzales-Robles A (1978) The cell surface ofTrypanosoma cruzi: Cytochemistry and freeze fracture. J Cell Sci 33:285–299Google Scholar
  8. Dvorak JA, Hyde TP (1973)Trypanosoma cruzi: Interaction with vertebrate cellsin vitro. I. Individual reactions at the cellular and subcellular level. Exp Parasitol 34:268–283Google Scholar
  9. Dvorak JA, Schmuñis GA (1972)Trypanosoma cruzi: Interaction with mouse peritoneal macrophages. Exp Parasitol 32:289–300Google Scholar
  10. Hoff R (1975) Killingin vitro ofTrypanosoma cruzi by macrophages from mice immunized withT. cruzi or BCG, and absence of cross-immunity on challengein vivo. J Exp Med 142:299–311Google Scholar
  11. Kipnis TL, Calich VLC, Dias da Silva W (1979) Active entry of bloodstream forms ofTrypanosoma cruzi into macrophages. Parasitology 78:89–98Google Scholar
  12. Kreier JP, Al-Abassy SM, Seed TM (1976)Trypanosoma cruzi: Observations on entry, development, release and ultrastructure of parasites grown in cell cultures. Ohio J Sci 76:243–253Google Scholar
  13. Kress Y, Tanowitz H, Bloom B, Wittner M (1977)Trypanosoma cruzi: Infection of normal and activated mouse macrophages. Exp Parasitol 41:385–296Google Scholar
  14. Meirelles MNL, Araújo Jorge TC, De Souza W (1980) Interaction of epimastigote and trypomastigote forms ofTrypanosoma cruzi with chicken macrophagesin vitro. Parasitology 81:373–381Google Scholar
  15. Melo RC, Brener Z (1978) Tissue tropism of differentTrypanosoma cruzi strains. J Parasitol 64:475–482Google Scholar
  16. Milder RV, Kloetzel J, Deane MP (1973) Observation on the interaction of peritoneal macrophages withTrypanosoma cruzi. I. Initial phase of the relationship with bloodstream and culture forms. Rev Inst Med Trop São Paulo 15:386–392Google Scholar
  17. Milder RV, Kloetzel J, Deane MP (1977) Observation on the interaction of peritoneal macrophages withTrypanosoma cruzi. II. Intracellular fate of bloodstream forms. Rev Inst Med Trop São Paulo 19:313–322Google Scholar
  18. Miranda AF, Godman GC, Deitch AD, Tanebaum SW (1974) Action of cytochalasin B on cells of established lines. J Cell Biol 61:481–500Google Scholar
  19. Muniz J, Freitas G (1946) Realizaçãoin vitro do ciclo doS. cruzi no vertebrado, em meios de caldo líquido peritoneal. Rev Bras Biol 6:467–484Google Scholar
  20. Nicolson GL (1976) Transmembrane control of the receptors on normal and tumor cells. I. Cytoplasmic influence over cell surface components. Biochim Biophys Acta 457:57–108Google Scholar
  21. Nogueira N, Bianco C, Cohn Z (1975) Studies on the selective lysis and purification ofTrypanosoma cruzi. J Exp Med 142:224–229Google Scholar
  22. Nogueira N, Cohn Z (1976)Trypanosoma cruzi: Mechanism of entry and intracellular fate in mammalian cells. J Exp Med 143:1402–1420Google Scholar
  23. Pereira MEA, Loures MA, Villalta F, Andrade AFB (1980) Lectin receptors as markers forTrypanosoma cruzi developmental stages and a study of the interaction of wheat germ agglutinin with sialic acid residues on epimastigote cells. J Exp Med 152:1375–1392Google Scholar
  24. Rabinovitch M (1967) The dissociation of the attachment and ingestion phases of phagocytosis by macrophages. Exp Cell Res 46:19–28Google Scholar
  25. Sanderson CJ, De Souza W (1979) A morphological study of the interaction betweenTrypanosoma cruzi and rat eosinophils, neutrophils and macrophages. J Cell Sci 37:275–286Google Scholar
  26. Silva LHP, Nussenzweig V (1953) Sobre uma cepa deTrypanosoma cruzi altamente virulenta para o camundongo branco. Fol Clin Biol 20:191–207Google Scholar
  27. Warren L (1960) Metabolism ofSchizotrypanum cruzi, Chagas. I. Effect of culture age and substrate concentration on respiratory rate. J Parasitol 46:529–530Google Scholar
  28. Williams DM, Remington JS (1977) Effect of human monocytes and macrophages onTrypanosoma cruzi. Immunology 32:19–23Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. N. L. de Meirelles
    • 1
    • 2
  • T. C. de Araújo Jorge
    • 1
  • W. de Souza
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratório de Ultra-Estrutura Celular, Instituto de BiofísicaUniversidade Federal do Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrasil
  2. 2.Fundação Oswaldo CruzRio de JaneiroBrasil

Personalised recommendations