Journal of Clinical Immunology

, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 145–151 | Cite as

Half-life of the maternal IgG1 allotype in infants

  • H. Sarvas
  • I. Seppälä
  • S. Kurikka
  • Rita Siegberg
  • O. Mäkelä
Original Articles

Abstract

The residence time of maternal IgG1 in the circulation of infants was measured by monitoring f-allotypic IgG1 or f-positive tetanus toxoid antibody in geneticallyG1mf-negative infants.G1ma-positive maternal tetanus toxoid antibody was similarly monitored in genetically a-negative infants. Blood samples were taken from infants at the age of 1–3 days, ca. 4 months, and ca. 6 months. An exponential decay at the same rate took place from age 1–3 days to 4 months and for the 2 subsequent months. The average concentration of the maternal IgG1 had dropped to ca. 10% of the 1- to 3-day value in 4 months and to ca. 3% in 6 months. The drop was due mainly to clearance but partly also to the weight increase of the child (doubling in 6 months). By correcting for the weight increase, we calculated that ca. 17 and 7% of the original maternal IgG1 was still present at ages 4 and 6 months, respectively. The average half-life of the maternal IgG1 was thus 48.4 days. The concentration of endogenous IgG1 in the cord blood was determined by studying a separate series of mother-newborn pairs. Assuming that cross-reactions of antiallotype reagents had no effect, the highest measured concentration of f-positive IgG1 in infants of f-negative mothers was 10 mg/L, half a percent of adult heterozygote values. Crossreaction may have played a role, however, and the value must be considered the upper limit of the true concentration.

Key words

Half-life IgG Gm allotypes 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Spiegelberg HL, Fishkin BG, Grey HM: Catabolism of human gammaG-immunoglobulins of different heavy chain subclasses. I. Catabolism of gammaG-myeloma proteins in man. J Clin Invest 47:2323–2330, 1968Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Waldmann TA, Strober W: Metabolism of immunoglobulins. Progr Allergy 13:1–110, 1969Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Morell A, Terry WD, Waldmann TA: Metabolic properties of IgG subclasses in man. J Clin Invest 49:673–680, 1970Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wells JV, Penny R: Survival studies on a commercial preparation of intravenous human gammaglobulin labelled with131I. Aust Ann Med 18:271–276, 1969Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vieira P, Rajewsky K: The bulk of endogenously produced IgG2a is eliminated from the serum of adult C57BL/6 mice with a half-life of 6–8 days. Eur J Immunol 16:871–874, 1986Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brambell FWR, Hemmings WA, Morris IG: A theoretical model of g-globulin catabolism. Nature 203:1352–1355, 1964Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Schiff RI, Rudd C: Alterations in the half-life and clearance of IgG during therapy with intravenous g-globulin in 16 patients with severe primary humoral immunodeficiency. J Clin Immunol 6:256–264, 1986Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schiff RI: Half-life and clearance of pH 6.8 and pH 4.25 immunoglobulin G intravenous preparations in patients with primary disorders of humoral immunity. Rev Infect Dis 8:S449-S456, 1986Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lee ML, Mankarious S, Ochs H, Fischer S, Wedgwood RJ: The pharmacokinetics of total IgG, IgG subclasses, and type specific antibodies in immunodeficient patients. Immunol Invest 20:193–198, 1991Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Weisman LE, Fischer GW, Hemming VG, Peck CC: Pharmacokinetics of intravenous immunoglobulin (Sandoglobulin®) in neonates. Pediat Infect Dis 5:S185-S188, 1986Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mankarious S, Lee M, Fischer S, Pyun KH, Ochs HD, Oxelius VA, Wedgwood RJ: The half-lives of IgG subclasses and specific antibodies in patients with primary immunodeficiency who are receiving intravenously administered immunoglobulin. J Lab Clin Med 112:634–640, 1988Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kyllonen KS, Clapp WD, Kliegman RM, Baley JE, Shenker N, Fanaroff AA, Berger M: Clinical and laboratory observations. Dosage of intravenously administered immune globulin and dosing interval required to maintain target levels of immunoglobulin G in low birth weight infants. J Pediat 115:1013–1016, 1989Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ambrosino DM, Landesman SH, Gorham CC, Siber GR: Passive immunization against disease due toHaemophilus influenzae type b: Concentrations of antibody to capsular polysaccharide in high-risk children. J Infect Dis 153:1–7, 1986Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Santosham M, Reid R, Ambrosino DM, Wolff MC, Almeido-Hill J, Priehs C, Aspery KM, Garrett S, Croll L, Foster S, Burge G, Page P, Zacher B, Moxon R, Chir B, Siber GR: Prevention ofHaemophilus influenzae type b infections in high-risk infants treated with bacterial polysaccharide immune globulin. N Engl J Med 317:923–929, 1987Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Barr M, Glenny AT, Randall KJ: Concentration of diphtheria antitoxin in cord blood and rate of loss in babies. Lancet 2:324–326, 1949Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wiener AS: The half-life of passively acquired antibody globulin molecules in infants. J Exp Med 94:213–221, 1951Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Strean GJ, Gelfand MM, Pavilanis V, Sternberg J: Maternalfetal relationships: Placental transmission of poliomyelitis antibodies in newborn. Can M A J 77:315–323, 1957Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Martins da Silva M, Prem KA, Johnson EA, McKelvey JL, Syverton JT: Response of pregnant women and their infants to poliomyelitis vaccine. Distribution of poliovirus antibody in pregnant women before and after vaccination—transfer, persistence, and induction of antibodies in infants. JAMA 168:1–5, 1958Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sato H, Albrecht P, Reynolds DW, Stagno S, Ennis MA: Transfer of measles, mumps, and rubella antibodies from mother to infant. Am J Dis Child 133:1240–1243, 1979Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Black FL, Berman LL, Borgoño JM, Capper RA, Carvalho AA, Collins C, Glover O, Hijazi Z, Jacobson DL, Lee Y-L, Libel M, Linhares AC, Mendizabal-Morris CA, Simöes E, Siqueira-Campos E, Stevenson J, Vecchi N: Geographic variation in infant loss of maternal measles antibody and in prevalence of rubella antibody. Am J Epidemiol 124:442–452, 1986Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Vaisberg A, Alvarez JO, Hernandez H, Guillen D, Chu P, Colarossi A: Loss of maternally acquired measles antibodies in well-nourished infants and response to measles vaccination, Peru. Am J Public Health 80:736–738, 1990Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sarvas H, Kurikka S, Seppälä IJT, Mäkelä PH, Mäkelä O: Maternal antibodies partially inhibit an active antibody response to the routine tetanus toxoid immunization in infants. J Infect Dis 165:977–979, 1992Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    de Lange GG, van Leeuwen AM, Vlug A, van Eede PH, Engelfriet CP, Lincoln PJ: Monoclonal antibodies against IgG allotypes G1m(z), G1m(a), G1m(f), G3m(bl/u), and G3m(g1): Their usefulness in HAI and capture ELISA. Exp Clin Immunogenet 6:18–30, 1989Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Seppälä IJT, Rautonen N, Sarnesto A, Mattila PA, Mäkelä O: The percentages of six immunoglobulin isotypes in human antibodies to tetanus toxoid: Standardization of isotypespecific second antibodies in solid-phase assay. Eur J Immunol 14:868–875, 1984Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sorva R, Tolppanen EM, Perheentupa J: Variation of growth in length and weight of children. I. Years 1 and 2. Acta Paediat Scand 79:490–497, 1990Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Speiser P: New aspects of immunogenetic relations between child and mother. I. Children produce antibodies against their mother's antigen. Ann Paediat 207:20–35, 1966Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Sarvas
    • 1
  • I. Seppälä
    • 1
  • S. Kurikka
    • 2
  • Rita Siegberg
    • 3
  • O. Mäkelä
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Bacteriology and ImmunologyUniversity of HelsinkiHelsinkiFinland
  2. 2.National Public Health InstituteHelsinkiFinland
  3. 3.Department I of Obstetrics and GynecologyHelsinki University Central HospitalHelsinkiFinland

Personalised recommendations