Study strategies and story recall in attention deficit disorder and reading disability
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The role of metacognition and executive processes in mediating use of study skills was examined in groups of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADD-H), normal, and non- ADD- H reading-disabled (RD) boys, matched on age and verbal IQ. On a story recall task, ADD- H boys did not differ from normals in their immediate gist recall of a story or in their recall following a study period. RD boys demonstrated inferior recall in both conditions. Study skills of the ADD- H boys were poorer than those of normal boys on all measures. They spent less time studying, expended less effort, and employed more superficial strategies. However, their poor strategies did not appear to reflect a lack of metacognitive awareness. Results are discussed in terms of the impact of motivational variables in modulating strategy use in ADD- H boys and the impact of verbal processing problems in reading disabilities. Implications for treatment and the relationship between ADD- H and RD are discussed.
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