, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 427–437 | Cite as

Stress diminishes infiltration and oxygen metabolism of phagocytic cells in calves

  • P. A. J. Henricks
  • G. J. Binkhorst
  • F. P. Nijkamp
Original Articles


The influences of a stress situation on the phagocytic cell function before and after infection withPasteurella haemolytica were measured in calves. No differences in phagocytic and metabolic activity of alveolar macrophages (AMs) were observed in vitro between cells isolated from stressed and nonstressed animals. The uptake of bacteria and the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) did not differ. However, the production of Superoxide by PMNs isolated from stressed animals was significantly diminished as compared to control PMNs. The stressed and six of the nine control calves were then infected intrabronchially withP. haemolytica. Phagocytic cell function was again evaluated after three days. The lavage fluid obtained from the lungs of the infected animals contained about three times more PMNs and six times more AMs as compared to the lavage fluid of the control calves. However, the increase in phagocytic cell numbers was less by half in the calves infected after the stress period. No differences were detected in phagocytic and metabolic activity of PMNs and AMs among control, infected, and stressed and infected calves. However, the chemotactic activities of PMNs obtained from infected stressed and infected nonstressed animals were diminished as compared to control PMNs. In conclusion, the metabolic responsiveness of PMNs is diminished and the accumulation of phagocytic cells at a site of infection is reduced after a stress period.


Oxygen Public Health Internal Medicine Superoxide Metabolic Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Rehmtulla, A. J., andR. G. Thomson. 1981. A review on the lesions in shipping fever of cattle.Can. Vet. J. 22:1–8.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Berggren, K. A., C. S. Baluyut, R. R. Simonson, W. J. Bemrick, andS. K. Mahes-Waran. 1981. Cytotoxic effects ofPasteurella haemolytica on bovine neutrophils.Am. J. Vet. Res. 42:1383–1388.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Walker, R. D., T. W. Schultz, F. M. Hopkins, and M. J. Bryant. 1984. Growth phasedependent phagocytosis ofPasteurella haemolytica by bovine pulmonary macrophages.Am. J. Vet. Res. 45:1230–1234.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Maheswaran, S. K., K. A. Berggren, R. R. Simonson, G. E. Ward, andC. C. Muscoplat. 1980. Kinetics of interaction and fate ofPasteurella hemolytica in bovine alveolar macrophages.Infect. Immun. 30:254–262.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chang, Y.-F., andH. W. Renshaw. 1986.Pasteurella hemolytica leukotoxin: Comparison of51chromium-release, trypan blue exclusion, and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence-inhibition assays for sensitivity in detecting leukotoxin activity.Am. J. Vet. Res. 47:134–138.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hilwig, R. W., J. G. Songer, andC. R. Reggiardo. 1985. Experimentally induced pneumonic pasteurellosis: Dose-response relationships and protection against natural reinfection in calves.Am. J. Vet. Res. 46:2585–2587.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lopez, A., R. G. Thomson, andM. Savan. 1976. The pulmonary clearance ofPasteurella hemolytica in calves infected with bovine parainfluenza-3 virus.Can. J. Comp. Med. 40:385–391.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Slocombe, R. F., F. J. Derksen, N. E. Robinson, A. Trapp, A. Gupta, andJ. P. Newman. 1984. Interactions of cold stress andPasteurella haemolytica in the pathogenesis of pneumonic pasteurellosis in calves: Method of induction and hematologic and pathologic changes.Am. J. Vet. Res. 45:1757–1763.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Filion, L. G., P. J. Willson, H. Bielefeldt-Ohmann, L. A. Babiuk, andR. G. Thomson. 1984. The possible role of stress in the induction of pneumonic pasteurellosis.Can. J. Comp. Med. 48:268–274.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bielefeldt-Ohmann, H., andL. A. Babiuk. 1986. Alteration of alveolar macrophage functions after aerosol infection with bovine herpesvirus type 1.Infect. Immun. 51:344–347.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Henricks, P. A. J., M. E. vander Tol, andJ. Verhoef. 1985. Interactions between human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and influenza virus.Scand. J. Immunol. 22:721–725.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Trigo, E., H. D. Liggitt, J. F. Evermann, R. G. Breeze, L. Y. Huston, andR. Silflow. 1985. Effect of in vitro inoculation of bovine respiratory syncytial virus on bovine pulmonary alveolar macrophage function.Am. J. Vet. Res. 46:1098–1103.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Roth, J. A., andM. L. Kaeberle. 1981. Effects of in vivo dexamethasone administration on in vitro bovine polymorphonuclear leukocyte function.Infect. Immun. 33:434–441.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Verhoef, J., P. K. Peterson, andP. G. Quif. 1977. Kinitics of staphylococcal opsonization, attachment, ingestion and killing by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes: A quantitative assay using [3H]thymidine-labeied bacteria.J. Immunol. Methods 14:303–311.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Babior, B. M., R. S. Kipness, andJ. T. Curnutte. 1973. Biological defense mechanisms. The production by leukocytes of Superoxide, a potential bactericidal agent.J. Clin. Invest. 52:741–744.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nelson, R. D., P. G. Quie, andR. L. Simmons. 1975. Chemotaxis under agarose: A new and simple method for measuring chemotaxis and spontaneous migration of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes.J. Immunol. 115:1650–1656.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Simensen, E., B. Laksesvela, A. K. Blom, andQ. V. Sjaastad. 1980. Effects of transportations, a high lactose diet and ACTH injections on the white blood cell count, serum cortisol and immunoglobulin G in young calves.Acta Vet. Scand. 21:278–290.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Axelrod, J., andT. D. Reisine. 1984. Stress hormones: Their interaction and regulation.Science 224:452–459.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rivkin, I., J. Rosenblatt, andE. L. Becker. 1975. The role of cyclic AMP in the chemotactic responsiveness and spontaneous motility of rabbit peritoneal neutrophils. The inhibition of neutrophil movement and the elevation of cyclic AMP levels by catecholamines, prostaglandins, theophylline and cholera toxin.J. Immunol. 15:1126–1134.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Abrass, C. K., S. W. O'conner, P. J. Scarpace, andI. B. Abrass. 1985. Characterization of theβ-adrenergic receptor of the rat peritoneal macrophage.J. Immunol. 135:1338–1341.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schenkelaars, E. J., andI. L. Bonta. 1985.β 2-Adrenoceptor agonists reverse the leukotriene C4-induced release response of macrophages.Eur. J. Pharmacol. 107:65–70.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Henricks, P. A. J., M. E. Van Der Tol, andJ. Verhoef. 1984. Aggregation of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes during phagocytosis of bacteria.Immunology 52:671–678.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bassett, J. R., andN. N. Tait. 1981. The effect of stress on the migration of leukocytes into the peritoneal cavity of rats following infection of an inflammatory agent.Aust. J. Exp. Biol. Med. Sci. 59:651–666.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Harmsen, A. G., andT. H. Turney. 1985. Inhibition of in vivo neutrophil accumulation by stress. Possible role of neutrophil adherence.Inflammation 9:9–20.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dahinden, C., C. Galanos, andJ. Fehr. 1983. Granulocyte activation by endotoxin. I. Correlation between adherence and other granulocyte functions, and the role of endotoxin structure on biological activity.J. Immunol. 130:857–862.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. A. J. Henricks
    • 1
  • G. J. Binkhorst
    • 2
  • F. P. Nijkamp
    • 1
  1. 1.Pharmacy and Toxicology Department of PharmacologyInstitute for Veterinary PharmacologyUtrecht
  2. 2.Department of Large Animal MedicineState university of UtrechtUtrechtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations