Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology

, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 337–353 | Cite as

Empirical evidence for overt and covert patterns of antisocial conduct problems: A metaanalysis

  • Rolf Loeber
  • Karen B. Schmaling
Article

Abstract

Twenty-eight factor- and cluster-analytic studies of child psychopathology were examined for patterns in antisocial behavior. A multidimensional scaling analysis yielded one dimension that was labeled overt-covert antisocial behavior. One end of this dimension consisted of overt or confrontive antisocial behaviors such as arguing, temper tantrums, and fighting. The other end consisted of covert or concealed antisocial behaviors such as stealing, truancy, and fire setting. Implications derived from the present findings are discussed as they apply to the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of antisocial behaviors in children.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1966). The classification of children's psychiatric symptoms: A factor analytic study.Psychological Monographs, 80(7, Whole No. 615).Google Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M. (1978). The child behavior profile: I. Boys aged 6–11.Journal of Consulting Psychology, 46, 478–488.Google Scholar
  3. Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. S. (1978). The classification of child psychopathology: A review and analysis of empirical efforts.Psychological Bulletin, 85, 1275–1301.Google Scholar
  4. Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. S. (1979). The child behavior profile: II. Boys aged 12–16 and girls aged 6–11 and 12–16.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 223–233.Google Scholar
  5. Achenbach, T. M., & Edelbrock, C. S. (1983).Manual for the Child Behavior Checklist and Revised Child Behavior Profile. Burlington, Vermont.Google Scholar
  6. American Psychiatric Association (1968).Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (2nd ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author.Google Scholar
  7. American Psychiatric Association (1980).Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (3rd ed.). Washington, D.C.: Author.Google Scholar
  8. Arnold, L. E., & Smeltzer, D. J. (1974). Behavior checklist factor analysis for children and adolescents.Archives of General Psychiatry, 30, 799–804.Google Scholar
  9. Chamberlain, P. (1980).Standardization of a parent report measure. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Oregon.Google Scholar
  10. Conners, C. K. (1970). Symptom patterns of hyperkinetic, neurotic, and normal children.Child Development, 41, 667–682.Google Scholar
  11. Dreger, R. M. (1981). The classification of children and their emotional problems.Clinical Psychology Review, 1, 415–430.Google Scholar
  12. Dreger, R. M. (1982). The classification of children and their emotional problems: An overview. II.Clinical Psychology Review, 2, 349–386.Google Scholar
  13. Dreger, R. M., & Dreger, G. E. (1962).Behavior classification project, Report No. 1. Unpublished manuscript, Jacksonville University.Google Scholar
  14. Dreger, R. M., Reid, M. P., Lewis, P. M., Overlade, D. C., Rich, T. A., Taffei, C., Miller, K. S., & Flemming, E. L. (1964). Behavior classification project.Journal of Consulting Psychology, 28, 1–13.Google Scholar
  15. Edelbrock, C. S., & Achenbach, T. M. (1980). A typology of child behavior profile patterns: Distribution and correlates for disturbed children aged 6–16.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 8, 441–470.Google Scholar
  16. Gibbons, D. C. (1975). Offender typologies — Two decades later.British Journal of Criminology, 15, 140–156.Google Scholar
  17. Glow, R. A. (1981). Cross-validity and normative data on the Conners parent and teacher rating scales. In K. D. Gadow & J. Loney (Eds),The psychosocial aspects of drug treatment for hyperactivity (pp. 107–150). Boulder, Colorado: A.A.A.S. and Westview Press.Google Scholar
  18. Goyette, C. H., Conners, C. K., Ulrich, R. F. (1978). Normative data on revised Conners Parent and Teacher Rating Scales.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 6, 221–236.Google Scholar
  19. Herbert, M. Conduct disorders. (1982). In B. B. Lahey & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.),Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol. 5, pp. 95–136). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  20. Hetherington, E. M., & Martin, B. (1979). Family interaction. In H. C. Quay & J. S. Werry (Eds.),Psychopathological disorders of childhood (2nd ed., pp. 247–302). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  21. Hewitt, L. E., & Jenkins, R. L. (1946).Fundamental patterns of maladjustment: The dynamics of their origin. Michigan Child Guidance Institute.Google Scholar
  22. Hirshoren, A., & Schnittjer, C. J. (1979). Dimensions of problem behavior in deaf children.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 7, 221–228.Google Scholar
  23. Hood, R., & Sparks, R. (1970).Key issues in criminology. London: Weindenfeld & Nicholson.Google Scholar
  24. Jenkins, R. L. (1966). Psychiatric syndromes in children and their relationship to family background.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 36, 450–457.Google Scholar
  25. Jenkins, R. L. (1968). The varieties of adolescents' behavioral problems and family dynamics. In S. J. Shamsie (Ed.),Adolescent psychiatry: Proceedings of a conference held at Douglas Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, June 1967 (pp. 10–24). Montreal, Canada: Shering.Google Scholar
  26. Jenkins, R. L., & Glickman, S. (1946). Common syndromes in child psychiatry.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 16, 244–253.Google Scholar
  27. Jenkins, R. L., NurEddin, E., & Shapiro, I. (1966). Children's behavior syndromes and parental responses.Genetic Psychology Monographs, 74, 261–329.Google Scholar
  28. Johnson, R. E. (1979).Juvenile delinquency and its origins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Kara, A., & Wahler, R. G. (1977). Organizational features of a young child's behaviors.Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 24, 24–39.Google Scholar
  30. Kohlberg, L., LaCrosse, J.,& Ricks, D. (1972). The predictability of adult mental health from childhood behavior. In B. B. Wolman (Ed.),Manual of child psychopathology (pp. 1217–1284). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  31. Kruskal, J. B. (1964). Nonmetric multidimensional scaling.Psychometrika, 29, 115–129.Google Scholar
  32. Lachar, D., & Gdowski, C. L. (1979). Problem-behavior factor correlates of Personality Inventory for Children Profile Scales.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 39–48.Google Scholar
  33. LaGreca, A. M., & Quay, H. C. (1984). Behavior disorders of children. In N. S. Endler & J. McV. Hunt (Eds.),Personality and behavior disorders (2nd ed.) New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  34. Langner, T. S., Gersten, J. C., Wills, T. A., & Simcha-Fagan, O. (1983). The relative roles of early environment and early behavior as predictors of later child behavior. In D. F. Ricks & B. S. Dohrenwend (Eds.),Origins of psychopathology (pp. 43–72). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Lessing, E. E. (1983). [Results from factor analysis.] Unpublished data analysis. Chicago: Institute for Juvenile Research.Google Scholar
  36. Lessing, E. E., Black, M., Barbera, L., & Seibert, F. (1976). Dimensions of adolescent psychopathology and their prognostic significance for treatment outcome.Genetic Psychology Monographs, 93, 155–168.Google Scholar
  37. Lessing, E. E., Williams, V., & Gil, E. (1982). A cluster-analytically derived typology: Feasible alternative to clinical diagnostic classification of children.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 10, 451–482.Google Scholar
  38. Lessing, E. E., & Zagorin, S. W. (1971). Dimensions of psychopathology in middle childhood as evaluated by three symptom checklists.Educational and Psychological Measurement, 31, 175–198.Google Scholar
  39. Lewis, H. G. (1954).Deprived children. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Loeber, R., & Schmaling K. B. (1982). [Results from factor analysis.] Unpublished data analysis.Google Scholar
  41. Loevinger, J. (1966). The meaning and measurement of ego development.American Psychologist, 21, 195–206.Google Scholar
  42. Loney, J., Langhorne, J. E., & Paternite, C. E. (1978). An empirical basis for subgrouping the hyperkinetic/minimal brain dysfunction syndrome.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 431–441.Google Scholar
  43. Lorr, M., & Jenkins, R. L. (1953). Patterns of maladjustment in children.Journal of Clinical Psychology, 9, 16–19.Google Scholar
  44. McDermott, P.A. (1982). Generality of disordered behavior across populations of normal and deviant school children: Factorial relations analyses.Multivariate Behavioral Research, 17, 69–85.Google Scholar
  45. Miller, L. C. (1967a). Louisville Behavior Checklist for males, 6–12 years of age.Psychological Reports, 21, 885–896.Google Scholar
  46. Miller, L. C. (1967b). Dimensions of psychopathology in middle childhood.Psychological Reports, 21, 897–903.Google Scholar
  47. O'Leary, S. G., & Steen, P. L. (1982). Subcategorizing hyperactivity: The Stony Brook Scale.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 50, 426–532.Google Scholar
  48. Patterson, G. R. (1982).A social learning approach, Vol. 3: Coercive family process. Eugene, Oregon: Castalia.Google Scholar
  49. Quay, H. C. (1964). Dimensions of personality in delinquent boys as inferred from the factor analysis of case history data.Child Development, 35, 479–484.Google Scholar
  50. Quay, H. C. (1966). Personality patterns in pre-adolescent boys.Educational Psychology Measurement, 26, 99–110.Google Scholar
  51. Quay, H. C. Classification. (1979). In H. C. Quay & J. S. Werry (Eds.),Psychopathological disorders of childhood (2nd ed., pp. 1–42). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  52. Quay, H. C., & Peterson, D. R. (1983).Interium manual for the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist. Unpublished manual, University of Miami.Google Scholar
  53. Reid, J. B., & Hendriks, A. F. C. J. (1973). A preliminary analysis of the effectiveness of direct home intervention for treatment of pre-delinquent boys who steal. In L. A. Hamerlynck, L. C. Handy, & E. J. Mash (Eds.),Behavior therapy: Methodology, concepts, and practice (pp. 209–220). Champaign, Illinois: Research Press.Google Scholar
  54. Reid, J. B., & Patterson, G. R. (1976). Follow-up analyses of a behavioral treatment program for boys with conduct problems: A reply to Kent.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44, 297–302.Google Scholar
  55. Robins, L. N. (1966).Deviant children grown up: A sociological and psychiatric study of sociopathic personality. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  56. Robins, L. N., & Ratcliff, K. S. (1980). Childhood conduct disorders and later arrest. In L. N. Robins, P. Clayton, & J. Wing (Eds.),Social consequences of psychiatric illness (pp. 248–263). New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  57. Rojek, D. G., & Erickson, M. L. (1982). Delinquent careers: A test of the career escalation model.Criminology, 20, 5–28.Google Scholar
  58. Russo, D. C., Cataldo, M. F., & Gushing, P. J. (1981). Compliance training and behavioral covariation in the treatment of multiple behavior problems.Journal of Appied Behavior Analysis, 14, 209–222.Google Scholar
  59. Sameroff, A. J., & Chandler, M. J. (1975). Reproductive risk and the continuum of caretaking casualty. In F. D. Horowitz, M. Hetherington, S. Scarr-Salapatck, & G. M. Siegel (Eds.),Review of child developmental research (Vol. 4, pp. 187–244). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  60. Short, J. F., Tennyson, R. A., & Howard, K. I. (1963). Behavior dimensions of gang delinquency.American Sociological Review, 28, 411–428.Google Scholar
  61. Simcha-Fagan, O., Langner, T. S., Gersten, J. C., & Eisenberg, J. G. (1975).Violent and antisocial behavior: A longitudinal study of urban youth. Unpublished report of the Office of Child Development, OCD-CB-480.Google Scholar
  62. Snyder, D. K., Lachar, D., & Gdowski, C. L. (1982).External validation of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) factor scales: Parent, teacher and clinician ratings. Unpublished manuscript, Lafayette Clinic, Detroit, Michigan.Google Scholar
  63. Stewart, M. A., deBlois, C. S., & Cummings, C. (1980). Psychiatric disorder in the parents of hyperactive boys and those with conduct disorder.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 21, 283–292.Google Scholar
  64. Thoresen, C. E., & Mahoney, M. J. (1974).Behavioral self-control. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.Google Scholar
  65. Trites, R. L., & Laprade, K. (1983). Evidence for an independent syndrome of hyperactivity.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24, 573–586.Google Scholar
  66. Voeltz, L. M., & Evans, I. M. (1982). The assessment of behavioral inter-relationships in child behavior therapy.Behavioral Assessment, 4, 131–165.Google Scholar
  67. Wahler, R. G. (1975). Some structural aspects of deviant child behavior.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8, 27–42.Google Scholar
  68. Whitman, T. L., Hurley, J. D., Johnson, M. R., & Christian, J. G. (1978). Direct and generalized reduction of inappropriate behavior in a severely retarded child through a parent-administered behavior modification program.AAESPH Review, 3, 68–77.Google Scholar
  69. Wolff, S. (1971). Dimensions and clusters of symptoms in disturbed children.British Journal of Psychiatry, 118, 421–427.Google Scholar
  70. Wolfgang, M. E., Figlio, R. M., & Sellin, T. (1972).Delinquency in a birth cohort. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  71. Young, F. W., & Lewyckyj, R. (1980). ALSCAL. In P. S. Reinhardt (Ed.),The SAS supplemental library user's guide, 1980 (pp. 15–25). Cary, North Carolina: SAS Institute.Google Scholar
  72. Yule, W. (1981). The epidemiology of child psychopathology. In B. B. Lahey & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.),Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 1–51). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rolf Loeber
    • 1
  • Karen B. Schmaling
    • 1
  1. 1.Oregon Social Learning CenterUSA

Personalised recommendations