The Luna-24 site is situated in Mare Crisium at a range of 18.4 km from Fahrenheit, an Eratosthenian-aged crater 6.4 km in diameter. Fahrenheit's ejecta deposits have been degraded to such an extent that secondary craters and rays cannot be unambiguously identified in the vicinity of the Luna-24 site. On the basis of an analogy between Fahrenheit and Lichtenberg B (a much younger crater of comparable size located in northern Oceanus Procellarum) Fahrenheit ejecta deposits near the sample site are inferred to have consisted of secondary crater clusters, subradially aligned secondary crater chains, and lineated terrain furrowed by fine-scale radial grooves. At the range of the Luna-24 site more than 80% of the mare surface should have been morphologically disturbed by the ballistic deposition of Fahrenheit ejecta. Blocks and fragment clusters of primary Fahrenheit ejecta ranging up to 5–20 m in diameter are inferred to have impacted the local surface at velocities of 165–230 m s−1 forming secondary craters ranging up to 100 m in diameter. The maximum depth of excavation of primary Fahrenheit ejecta deposited near the sample site is estimated to be at least 100 m. Primary Fahrenheit ejecta is expected to constitute a substantial fraction of the exterior deposits emplaced at the range of the Luna-24 site. Microgabbro and monomineralic fragments discovered in the Luna-24 drill core may have been derived from gabbroic rocks transported to the sample site by the Fahrenheit cratering event. This hypothesis is consistent with the widespread occurrence and characteristics of Fahrenheit ejecta anticipated in the vicinity of the Luan-24 site. Current interpretations of the drill core sample suggest that the Luna-24 regolith was deposited in its present configuration sometime during the last 0.3 AE implying that at least one local cratering event has occurred since the emplacement of Fahrenheit ejecta ∼2.0±0.5 AE ago.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Barsukov, V. L.: 1977, ‘Preliminary Data for the Regolith Core Brought to Earth by the Automatic Lunar Station Luna 24’,Proc. 8th Lunar Sci. Conf., pp. 3303–3318.
Basu, A., McKay, D. S., and Fruland, R.M.: 1978, ‘Petrography, Mineralogy and Source Rocks of Luna 24 Drill Core Soils’, inMare Crisium: The View from Luna 24, Pergamon Press, New York, pp.321–338.
Bence, A. E. and Grove, T. L.: 1977, ‘The Highland Component in the Luna 24 Core’ (abs.), Conference on Luna 24, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Tex, pp. 22–24.
Bogard, D. D. and Hirsch, W. C.: 1978, ‘Noble Gases in Luna 24 Core Soils’, inMare Crisium: The View from Luna 24, Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 105–116.
Boyce, J. M.: 1976, ‘Ages of Flow Units in the Lunar Nearside Maria Based on Lunar Orbiter IV Photographs’,Proc. 7th Lunar Sci. Conf., pp. 2717–2728.
Boyce, J. M. and Johnson, D. A.: 1977, ‘Age of Flow Units in Mare Crisium Based on Crater Density’,Proc. 8th Lunar Sci. Conf., pp. 3495–3502.
Butler, P. and Morrison, D. A.: 1977, ‘Geology of the Luna 24 Landing Site’,Proc. 8th Lunar Science Conf., pp. 3281–3301.
Culp, F. L. and Hooper, H. L.: 1961, ‘Study of Impact Cratering in Sand’,J. Appl. Phys. 32, 2488–2484.
Dence, M. R.: 1973, ‘Dimensional Analysis of Impact Structures’,Meteoritics 8, 343–344.
Dence, M. R., Grieve, R. A. F., and Robertson, P. B.: 1977, ‘Terrestrial Impact Structures: Principal Characteristics and Energy Considerations’, in D. J. Roddy, R. O. Pepin, and R. B. Merrill (eds.),Impact and Explosion Cratering, Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 247–275.
Florensky, C. P., Basilevsky, A. T., Ivanov, A. V., Pronin, A. A., Rode, O. D.: 1977, ‘Luna 24: Geologic Settling of Landing Site and Characteristics of Sample Core’ (Preliminary Data),Proc. 8th Lunar Sci. Conf., pp. 3257–3279.
Gault, D. E., Quaide, W. L., and Oberbeck, V. R.: 1968, ‘Impact Cratering Mechanics and Structures’, in B. M. French and N. M. Short (eds.),Shock Metamorphism of Natural Materials, Mono Book Corp., Baltimore, Md., pp. 87–99.
Gault, D. E. and Wedekind, J. A.: 1977, ‘Experimental Hypervelocity Impact into Quartz Sand-II, Effects of Gravitational Acceleration’, in D. J. Roddy, R. O. Pepin, and R. B. Merrill (eds.),Impact and Explosion Cratering, Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 1231–1244.
Grove, T. L. and Bence, A. E.: 1977, ‘Petrogenesis of Gabbros from Mare Crisium’ (abs.), Conference on Luna 24, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Tex., pp. 64–67.
Head, J. W.: 1975, ‘Processes of Lunar Crater Degradation: Changes in Style with Geologic Time’,The Moon 12, 299–329.
Head, J. W., Adams, J. B., McCord, T. B., Pieters, C., and Zisk, S.: 1978, ‘Regional Stratigraphy and Geologic History of Mare Crisium’, inMare Crisium: The View from Luna 24, Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 43–74.
Ivanov, B. A. and Comissarova, L. I.: 1977, ‘The Simple Hydrodynamic Model of Cratering’, (abs.),Lunar Science VIII, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Tex., pp. 499–501.
McGetchin, T. R., Settle, M., and Head, J. W.: 1973, ‘Radial Thickness Variation in Impact Crater Ejecta: Implications for Lunar Basin Deposits’,Earth Planet. Sci. Letters 20, 226–236.
McKay, D. S., Basu, A., and Waits, G.: 1978, ‘Grain Size and Evolution of Luna 24 Soils’, inMare Crisium: The View from Luna 24, Peramon Press, New York, pp. 125–136.
Moore, H. J.: 1976, ‘Missle Impact Craters (White Sands Missle Range, New Mexico) and Applications to Lunar Research’, U.S. Geological Survey Prof. Paper 812-B, p. B1–47.
Moore, H. J., Hodges, C. A., and Scott, D. H.: 1974, ‘Multiringed Basins-Illustrated by Orientale and Associated Features’,Proc. 5th Lunar Sci. Conf., pp. 71–100.
Moore, J. G. and Evans, B. W.: 1967, ‘The Role of Olivane in the Crystallization of the Prehistoric Makaopuhi Tholeiitic Lava Lake, Hawaii’,Contrib. Mineral. Petrol.,15, 202–223.
Morris, R. V.: 1978, ‘FMR and Magnetic Studies of Luna 24 Soils and > 1 mm Soil Particles’, inMare Crisium: The View from Luna 24, Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 117–124.
Morrison, R. H. and Oberbeck, V. R.: 1975, ‘Geomorphology of Crater and Basin Deposits-Emplacement of the Fra Mauro Formation’,Proc. 6th Lunar Sci. Conf, pp. 2503–2530.
Nakamura, Y., Dorman, J., Duennebier, F., Lammlein, D., and Latham, G.: 1975, ‘Shallow Lunar Structure Determined from the Passive Seismic Experiment’,The Moon,13, 57–66.
Neukum, G. and König, B.: 1976, ‘Dating of Individual Lunar Craters’,Proc. 7th Lunar Sci. Conf., pp. 2867–2881.
Oberbeck, V. R., Morrison, R. H., Hörz, F., Quaide, W. L., Gault, D. E.: 1974, ‘Smooth Planis and Continuous Deposits of Craters and Basins’,Proc. 5th Lunar Sci. Conf., pp. 111–136.
Oberbeck, V. R., Hörz, F., Morrison, R. H., Quaide, W. L., and Gault, D. E.: 1975, ‘On the Origin of Lunar Smooth Plains’,The Moon 12, 19–54.
Offield, T. W. and Pohn, H. A.: 1970, ‘Lunar Crater Morphology and Relative Age Determination of Lunar Geologic Units, Part II, Applications’, U.S. Geological Survey Prof. Paper 700-C, p. C 163–169.
O'Keefe, J. D. and Ahrens, T. J.: 1976, ‘Impact Ejecta on the Moon’,Proc. 7th Lunar Sci. Conf., pp. 3007–3025.
Pike, R. J.: 1974, ‘Ejecta from Large Craters on the Moon: Comments on the Geometric Model of McGetchin et al.,Earth Planet Sci. Letters 23, 265–271.
Pike, R. J.: 1976, ‘Crater Dimensions from Apollo Data and Supplemental Sources’,The Moon 15, 463–477.
Pike, R. J.: 1977a, ‘Size Dependence in the Shape of Fresh Impact Craters on the Moon’, in D. J. Roddy, R. O. Pepin, and R. B. Merrill (eds.),Impact and Explosion Cratering, Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 489–509.
Pike, R. J.: 1977b, ‘Apparent Depth/Apparent Diameter Relation for Lunar Craters’Proc. 8th Lunar Sci. Conf., pp. 3427–3436.
Pike, R. J. and Wilhelms, D. E.: 1978, ‘Secondary Impact Craters on the Moon: topographic Form and Geologic Process’. (abs.),Lunar and Planetary Science IX, pp. 907–909, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Tex.
Pohn, H. A. and Offield, T. W.: 1970, ‘Lunar Crater Morphology and Relative Age Determination of Lunar Geologic Units, Part I, Classification’, U.S. Geological Survey Prof. Paper 700-C, p. C 153–162.
Quaide, W. and Oberbeck, V.: 1975, ‘Development of the Mare Regolith: Some Model Considerations’,The Moon 13, 27–55.
Roddy, D. J., Boyce, J. M., Colton, G. W., and Dial, A. L.: 1975, ‘Meteor Crater, Arizona, Rim Drilling with Thickness, Structural Uplift, Diameter, Depth, Volume, and Mass-Balance Calculations’,Proc. 6th Lunar Sci. Conf., pp. 2621–2644.
Settle, M. and Head, J. W.: 1977, ‘Radial Variation of Lunar Crater Rim Topography’,Icarus 31, 123–135.
Stoffler, D., Dence, M. R., Graup, G., and Abadian, M.: 1974, ‘Interpretation of Ejecta Foramtions at the Apollo 14 and 16 Sites by a Comparative Analysis of Experimental Terrestrial, and Lunar Craters’,Proc. 5th Lunar Sci. Conf., pp. 137–150.
Stöffler, D., Gault, D. E., Wedekind, J., and Polkowski, G.: 1975, ‘Experimental Hypervelocity Impact into Quartz Sand: Distribution and Shock Metamorphism of Ejecta’,J. Geophys. Res. 80, 4062–4077.
Swann, G. A. and Reed, V. S.: 1974, ‘A Method for Estimating the Absolute Ages of Small Copernican Craters and its Application to the Determination of Copernican Meteorite Flux’,Proc. 5th Lunar Sci. Conf., pp. 151–158.
Tarasov, L. S., Nazarov, M. A., Shevaleevsky, I. D., Kidryashova, A. F., Gaverdovskaya, A. S., and Korina, M. I.: 1977, ‘Mineralogy and Petrography of Lunar Rocks from Mare Crisium’, (Preliminary Data),Proc. 8th Lunar Science Conf., pp. 3333–3356.
Trask, N. J.: 1971, ‘Geologic Comparisons of Mare Materials in the Lunar Equatorial Belt, Including Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 Landing Sites’, U.S. Geological Survey Prof. Paper 750-D, p. D 138–148.
Ulrich, G. E., Moore, H. J., Reed, V. S., Wolfe, E. W., and Larson, K. B.: 1975, ‘Distribution of Ejecta from South Ray Crater’ (abs.),Lunar Science VI, pp. 832–834, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Tex.
Viktorov, V. V. and Stepenov, R. D.: 1960,Inzh. Bs. 28, 87–96, transl. by M. I. Weinrich, SCLT-392, Sandia Corporation, Albuquerque, N.M., 1961.
Wasserburg, G. J., DiBrozolo, F. R., Papanastassiou, D. A., McCulloch, M. T., Huneke, J. C., Dymek, R. F., DePaolo, D. J., Chodos, A. A., and Albee, A. L.: 1978, ‘Petrology, Chemistry, Age and Irradiation History of Luna 24 Samples’, inMare Crisium: The View from Luna 24, Pergamon Press, New York, pp. 657–678.
Whitaker, E. A.: 1972, ‘Lunar Color Boundaries and Their Relationship to Topographic Features: A Preliminary Survey’,The Moon 4, 348–355.
Whitford-Stark, J. L. and Head, J. W.: 1978, ‘Oceanus Procellarum: Preliminary Basalt Stratigraphy and Emplacement History’, (abs.),Lunar and Planetary Science IX, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Tex., pp. 1250–1252.
About this article
Cite this article
Settle, M., Cintala, M.J. & Head, J.W. Emplacement of Fahrenheit craterejecta at the luna-24 site. The Moon and the Planets 20, 281–300 (1979). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00907580
- Sample Site
- Core Sample
- Drill Core
- Gabbroic Rock