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How “open” is open learning?

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Many of the models and paradigms that underlie open learning are based on inappropriate mechanistic, closed-system models-to name two, Instructional Systems Design (ISD) and behaviorism. This paper explores the roots of the open learning systems approach to education and examines the relationship between the goals of this approach and the models and methodologies that have followed its implementation. These models are then analyzed within the context of the theory of open and closed systems and a number of incongruities noted. An open systems orientation toward the development of learning systems is suggested and recommendations are made for its implementation.

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Moisey, S.D. How “open” is open learning?. Innov High Educ 9, 5–18 (1984). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00903362

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  • Open System
  • Social Psychology
  • System Design
  • System Approach
  • Closed System