Mathematical Geology

, Volume 25, Issue 5, pp 573–602

Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis (EDMA): Estimation of mean form and mean form difference

  • Subhash Lele

DOI: 10.1007/BF00890247

Cite this article as:
Lele, S. Math Geol (1993) 25: 573. doi:10.1007/BF00890247


Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis (EDMA) of form is a coordinate free approach to the analysis of form using landmark data. In this paper, the problem of estimation of mean form, variance-covariance matrix, and mean form difference under the Gaussian perturbation model is considered using EDMA. The suggested estimators are based on the method of moments. They are shown to be consistent, that is as the sample size increases these estimators approach the true parameters. They are also shown to be computationally very simple. A method to improve their efficiency is suggested. Estimation in the presence of missing data is studied. In addition, it is shown that the superimposition method of estimation leads to incorrect mean form and variance-covariance structure.

Key words

coordinate free approach invariance principle moment estimators non-central chi-square nuisance parameters procrustes methods superimposition missing data 

Copyright information

© International Association for Mathematical Geology 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Subhash Lele
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biostatistics, School of Hygiene and Public HealthThe Johns Hopkins UniversityBaltimore

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