Applied physics

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 1–26

Solar cell materials and their basic parameters

  • E. Bucher
Invited Paper

Abstract

Parameters such as the energy gapEg, open circuit voltageVoc, short circuit current densityjsc, fill factor F.F., efficiency η, antireflection coating condition A.R. and illumination conditions of currently known photovoltaic diodes are reviewed and tabulated, followed by some critical comments.

PACS

84.60 72.40.+w 73.40.+y 73.40.Lq 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    H.J. Hovel:Solar Cells, inSemiconductors and Semimetals, Vol.11, ed. by R.K. Willardson and A.C. Beer (Academic Press, New York 1975) pp. 1–254Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    S.M. Sze:Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley-Interscience, New York: 1969) pp. 640–653Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. Fischer: InFestkörperprobleme XIV, ed. by H.J. Queisser (Pergamon, Oxford and Vieweg, Braunschweig 1974) pp. 153–182Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. Bonnet, M. Selders, H. Rabenhorst: InFestkörperprobleme XVI, ed. by J. Treusch (Vieweg, Braunschweig 1976) pp. 293–313Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Rothwarf, K.W. Böer: Progr. in Sol. State Chem.10, 71–102 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    K.W. Böer, A. Rothwarf: Ann. Rev. Mat. Sc.6, No. 8591, 303–335 (1976)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    S.Wagner: Adv. in Chemistry163, to be published and J. Cryst. Growth31, 113–121 (1975)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    P.T. Landsberg: Solid State Electron.18, 1043–1052 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A.L. Fahrenbruch: J. Cryst. Growth39, 73–91 (1977)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Rodot, M. Barbé, J. Dixmier: Rev. Phys. Appl.12, 1223–1235 (1977)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Rodot: Acta Electronica18, 345–358 (1975)ADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    IEEE Trans. ED-24, 4 (1977)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. Wagner: J. Cryst. Growth39, 151–159 (1977)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S.Wagner: InTernary Compounds 1977, ed. by G.D. Holah, Inst. of Physics, Conf. Series 35 (Bristol, London, New York 1977) pp. 205–216Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    K.J. Bachmann, E. Buehler, J.L. Shay, S. Wagner: Z. Physik. Chemie98, 365–376 (1975)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    J.J. Loferski: J. Appl. Phys.27, 777–784 (1956) and Proc. 10th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE New York 1973) pp. 1–4CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    W. Shockley, H.J. Queisser: J. Appl. Phys.32, 510–519 (1961)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    C.D. Mathers: J. Appl. Phys.48, 3181–3182 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    G. Haacke: J. Appl. Phys.47, 4086–4089 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    R.A. Arndt, J.F. Allison, J.G. Haynos, A. Meulenberg: Proc. 11th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1975) pp. 40–43Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    H.W. Brandhorst: Proc. 8th Intern. Conf. on Solid State Devices, Tokoy (1976): Japan. J. Appl. Phys.16, 399–405 (1977)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    J.Haynos, J.F.Allison, R.Arndt, A.Meulenberg: Intern. Conf. on Photovoltaic Power Generation, Hamburg (1974) Sept. 25–27, pp. 487–500 (unpubl.)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. Lindmayer, J.F. Allison: COMSAT Tech. Rev.3, 1–22 (1973)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    P.A. Payne, R.L. Oliver: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York, 1976) pp. 595–599Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    R.V. D'Aiello, P.H. Robinson, H. Kressel: Appl. Phys. Lett.28, 231–234 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    C.E. Norman, R.E. Thomas: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 993–996Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    G.C. Salter, R.E. Thomas: Solid State Electron.20, 95–104 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    S.Y. Chiang, B.G. Carbajal, G.F. Wakefield: Proc. Intern. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conf., Luxemburg (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland 1977) pp. 104–112Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    M.S. Bae, R.V. D'Aiello: Appl. Phys. Lett.31, 285–287 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    R. Wichner, E.J. Charlson: J. Electron. Mat.5, 513–529 (1976)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    R.M. Warner, Jr., E.M. Murray, W.K. Smith: Appl. Phys. Lett.31, 838–839 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    K.V. Ravi: J. Cryst. Growth39, 1–16 (1977)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    H.B. Serreze, J.C. Swartz, G. Entine, K.V. Ravi: Mat. Res. Bull9, 1421–1426 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    H. Kressel, R.V. D'Aiello, E.R. Levin, P.H. Robinson, S.H. McFarlane: J. Cryst. Growth39, 23–44 (1977)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    I.A. Lesk, A. Baghadi, R.W. Gurtler, R.J. Ellis, J.A. Wise, M.G. Coleman: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 173–181Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    G.H. Schwuttke: Phys. Stat. Sol. (a)43, 43–51 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    R.G. Seidensticker: J. Crystal Growth39, 17–22 (1977)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    J.R. Davis, P. Rai-Choudhury, P.D. Blais, R.H. Hopkins, J.R. McCormick: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 106–111Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    H. Fischer, W. Pschunder: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 86–92Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    H. Fischer: InPhotovoltaic Solar Energy Conf., ed. by A. Strub (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland 1977) pp. 52–75Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    H. Fischer, W. Pschunder: IEEE Trans. ED-24, 438–442 (1977)ADSGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    J. Lindmayer: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 82–85; and inPhotovoltaic Solar Energy Conf., ed. by A. Strub (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland 1977) pp. 76–91Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    T.L. Chu: J. Cryst. Growth39, 45–60 (1977)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    T.L. Chu, S.S. Chu, K.Y. Duh, H.C. Mollenkopf: J. Appl. Phys.48, 3576–3579 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    T.L. Chu: Appl. Phys. Lett.29, 675–676 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    T.L. Chu, K.N. Singh: Solid State Electron.19, 837–841 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    A.D. Haigh:Solar Electricity (Maison des Congrès, Toulouse 1976) pp. 183–190Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    E. Fabre, Y. Baudet: InPhotovoltaic Solar Energy Conf., ed. by A. Strub (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland 1977) pp. 178–186Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    C. Belouet, J.J. Brissot, R. Martres, Ngo Tich Phuoc: In Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conf. (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland 1977) pp. 164–175Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    T. Warabisako, T. Saitoh, H. Itoh, N. Nakamura, T. Tokuyama: InPhotovoltaic Solar Energy Conf., ed. by A. Strub (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland 1977) pp. 187–196Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    J.D. Zook, J.D. Heaps, R.B. Maciolek: Proc. Intern. Electron Device Meeting, Technical Digest, Washington D.C. (Dec. 1977)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    J.D. Heaps, R.B. Maciolek, J.D. Zook, M.W. Scott: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 147–150Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    S. Minegawa, T. Saitoh, T. Warabisako, N. Nakamura, H. Itoh, T. Tokuyama: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 77–81 and [Ref. 12, pp. 446–449]Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    T. Saitoh, T. Warabisako, H. Itoh, N. Nakamura, H. Tamura, S. Minegawa, T. Tokuyama: Jap. J. Appl. Phys.16, Suppl. 16-1, pp. 413–416 (1977)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    C. Feldman, N.A. Blum, H.K. Charles, F.G. Satkiewicz: J. Electron. Mat.7, 309–336 (1978)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    O. Busmundrud, T.S. Jayadevaiah: Phys. Stat. Sol. (a)11, K47-K50 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    D.E. Carlson, C.R. Wronski: Appl. Phys. Lett.28, 671–673 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    D.E. Carlson, C.R. Wronski: J. electron. Mat.6, 95–106 (1977)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    M. Altmejd, C.H. Champness: InPhotovoltaic Solar Energy Conf., ed. by A. Strub (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland 1977) pp. 1160–1169Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    A. Kunioka, Y. Sakai: Solid State Electron.8, 961–965 (1965)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    K. Okumura: J. Appl. Phys.45, 5317–5323 (1974)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    F.M. Livingstone, W.M. Tsang, A.J. Barlow, R.M. De La Rue, W. Ducan: J. Physics D10, 1959–1963 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    H. Okimura, R. Kondo: Japan. J. Appl. Phys.9, 274–280 (1970); also6, 908 (1967)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    P.A. Kovalenko, V.A. Korotkov, L.M. Panasjuk: Proc. Intern. Conf. on Physics and Chemistry of Semicond. Heterojunctions (Akademiai Kiadó, Budapest 1971) Vol. 11, pp. 363–371Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    J.J. Loferski, J. Shewchun, E.A. de Meo, R. Arndt, E.E. Crisman, R. Beaulieu, H.L. Hwang, C.C. Wu: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 496–501Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    V.A. Drozdov, M.M. Mel'nikov: Sov. Phys.-Semicond.7, 801–802 (1973)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    E.J. Charlson, J.C. Lien: J. Appl. Phys.46, 3982–3987 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    P. van Halen, R. Mertens, R. van Overstraeten, R.E. Thomas, J. van Meerbergen: InPhotovoltaic Solar Energy Conf., ed. by A. Strub (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland 1977) pp. 280–288Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    P. van Halen, R.E. Thomas, R. Mertens, R. van Overstraeten: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 907–912Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    M.A. Green, R.B. Godfrey: Appl. Phys. Lett.29, 610–612 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    D.L. Pulfrey: Solid State Electron.20, 455–457 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    J.A. St. Pierre, R. Singh, J. Shewchun, J.J. Loferski: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 847–853Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    M.A. Green, R.B. Godfrey: Proc. Int. natl. Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conf., Luxemburg (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland 1977) pp. 299–307Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    M.A. Green, R.B. Godfrey, L.W. Davies: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 896–899Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    W.G. Townsend, D.R. Lillington: InPhotovolt. Solar Energy Conf., ed. by A. Strub (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland 1977) pp. 207–213Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    H.C. Card, E.S. Yang, P. Panayotatos: Appl. Phys. Lett.30, 643–645 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    D.R. Lillington, W.G. Townsend: Appl. Phys. Lett.31, 471–472 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    T. Mizrah, D. Adler: IEEE Trans. ED24, 458–462 (1977); and J. Non-Cryst. Sol.22, 37–44 (1976)ADSGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    A.H.M. Kipperman, M.H. Omar: Appl. Phys. Lett.28, 620–621 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    J.P. Ponpon, P. Siffert: J. Appl. Phys.47, 3248–3257 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    J.P. Ponpon, R. Stuck, P. Siffert: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976), pp. 900–903Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    D.R. Lillington, W.G. Townsend: Appl. Phys. Lett.28, 97–98 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    J.A. Roger, P. Eisenberg, J. Pivot, C.H.S. Dupuy, G. Vendura, S.J. Fonash.Solar Electricity (Maison des Congrès, Toulouse 1976) pp. 499–505Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    R. Childs, J. Fortuna, J. Geneczko, S.J. Fonash: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976), pp. 862–867Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    S.M. Vernon, W.A. Anderson: Appl. Phys. Lett.26, 707–709 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    W.A. Anderson, S.M. Vernon, P. Mathe, B. Lalevic: Solid State Electron.19, 973–974 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    W.A. Anderson, A.E. Delahoy, R.A. Milano: J. Appl. Phys.45, 3913–3915 (1974)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    W.A. Anderson, S.M. Vernon, A.E. Delahoy, J.K. Kim, P. Mathe: J. Vac. Sci. Technol.13, 1158–1161 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    A.E. Delahoy, W.A. Anderson, J.K. Kim: InPhotovoltaic Solar Energy Conf., ed. by A. Strub (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland 1977) pp. 308–318Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    P. Munz, E. Bucher: Proc. 13th IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (IEEE New York 1978) to be publ.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    H. Matsunami, K. Oo, H. Ito, T. Tanaka: Jap. J. Appl. Phys.14, 915–916 (1975)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    T. Nagatomo, O. Omoto: Japan. J. Appl. Phys.15, 199–200 (1976)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    J.B. DuBow, D.E. Burk, J.R. Sites: Appl. Phys. Lett.29, 494–496 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    D.E. Burk, J.B. DuBow, J.R. Sites: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 971–974Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    E. Fabre, R. Tijburg:Solar Electricity (Maison des Congrès, Toulouse 1976) pp. 493–498Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    S.W. Lai, S.L. Franz, G. Kent, R.L. Anderson, J.K. Clifton, J.V. Masi: Proc. 11th IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1975) pp. 398–401Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    R.L. Anderson: Appl. Phys. Lett.27, 691–693 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    T. Mizrah, D. Adler: Appl. Phys. Lett.29, 682–684 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    J.C. Manifacier, L. Szepessy, M. Savelli: InPhotovoltaic Solar Energy Conf., ed. by A. Strub (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland 1977) pp. 289–298Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    J.C. Manifacier, L. Szepessy: Appl. Phys. Lett.31, 459–462 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    D.E. Carlson: IEEE Trans. ED-24, 449–453 (1977)ADSGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    H. Matsunami, S. Matsumoto, T. Tanaka: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 917–919; and Japan. J. Appl. Phys.16, 1491–1492 (1977)Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    D.E. Carlson, C.R. Wronski, A.R. Triano, R.E. Daniel: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 893–895Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    C.R. Wronski, D.E. Carlson, R.E. Daniel: Appl. Phys. Lett.29, 602–605 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    M. Perotin, L. Szepessy, J.C. Manifacier, P. Parot, J.P. Fillard, M. Savelli:Solar Electricity (Maison des Congrès, Toulouse 1976) pp. 481–492Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    S. Franz, G. Kent, R.L. Anderson: J. Electron. Mat.6, 107–123 (1977)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    H. Kato, A. Yoshida, T. Arizumi: Japan. J. Appl. Phys.15, 1819–1820 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    T.R. Nash, R.L. Anderson: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 975–977Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    H. Kato, J. Fujimoto, T. Kanda, A. Yoshida, T. Arizumi: Phys. Status Sol. (a)32, 255–261 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    E. Fabre, J. Michel, Y. Baudet: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 904–906Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    E. Fabre: Appl. Phys. Lett.29, 607–610 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    M. Peckerar, H.C. Lin, R.L. Kocher: Int. El. Device Meeting, IEEE Technical Report, Washington D.C. (Dec. 1975) pp. 213–216Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    J.C.C. Fan, C.O. Bozler, R.L. Chapman: Appl. Phys. Lett.32, 390–392 (1978)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    D.A. Jenny, J.J. Loferski, P. Rappaport: Phys. Rev.101, 1208–1209 (1956)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    H.J. Hovel, J.M. Woodall: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 945–947Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    A.R. Gobat, M.F. LaMorte, G.W. McIver: IRE Trans. Milit. Electron.6, 20–27 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    H.G. Grimmeiss, W. Kischio, H. Koelmans: Sol. State Electron.5, 155–159 (1962)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    A. Nguyen van Mau, G. Bougnot, H.Y. Muoy, G.M. Moussalli: InPhotovoltaic Solar Energy Conf., ed. by A. Strub (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland 1977) pp. 405–414Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    V.V. Galavanov, R.M. Kundukhov, D.N. Nasledov: Sov. Phys. Sol. State8, 2723 (1967)Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    W.D. Johnston, Jr., W.M. Callahan: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 934–938; Appl. Phys. Lett.28, 150–152 (1976); and J. Cryst. Growth39, 117–127 (1977)Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    D. Huber, K. Bogus: Proc. 10th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1974) pp. 100–102Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    M. Konagai, K. Takahashi: Electrochem. Soc. Spring Meeting, Washington (1976) Abstract 224, pp. 554–555Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    M. Konagai: private communicationGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    J.A. Hutchby, R. Sahai, J.S. Harris: Technical Digest, Internatl. El. Device Meeting, Washington D.C. (Dec. 1975) pp. 91–94Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    L.W. James, R.L. Moon: Proc. 11th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1975) pp. 402–408Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    G.S. Kamath, J. Ewan, R.C. Knechtli: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 929–933Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    R. Sahai, D.D. Edwall, E. Cory, J.S. Harris: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovolt. Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 989–992Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    R.D. Dupuis, P.D. Dapkus, R.D. Yingling, L.A. Moudy: Appl. Phys. Lett.31, 201–203 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    E. Fabre, A. Brière, J.P. André: InPhotovoltaic Solar Energy Conf., ed. by A. Strub (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland 1977) pp. 388–394Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    J.M. Woodall, H.J. Hovel: Appl. Phys. Lett.30, 492–493 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    R.K. Purohit: Phys. Stat. Sol.24, K57-K60 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Zh. I. Alfërov, N.S. Zimogorova, M.K. Trukan, V.M. Tuchkevich: Sov. Phys. Sol. State7, 990–991 (1965)Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    A. Yoshikawa, Y. Sakai: Jap. J. Appl. Phys.14, 1547–1554 (1975)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    P. Vohl, D.M. Perkins, S.G. Ellis, R.R. Addiss, W. Hui, G. Noel: IEEE Trans. ED-14, 26–30 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    P.V. Gaugash, V.A. Kas'yan, V.I. Kovol'kov, N.R. Rakhimov: Sov. Phys.-Semicond.9, 1239–1242 (1976)Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    J.W. Balch, W.W. Anderson: Phys. Stat. Sol. (a)9, 567–572 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    S. Wagner, J.L. Shay, K.J. Bachmann, E. Buehler, M. Bettini: J. Cryst. Growth39, 128–136 (1977)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    J.L. Shay, M. Bettini, S. Wagner, K.J. Bachmann, E. Buehler: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 540–543Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    J.L. Shay, S. Wagner, M. Bettini, K.J. Bachmann, E. Buehler: IEEE Trans. ED-24, 483–486 (1977)ADSGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    K. Ito, T. Ohsawa: Japan. J. Appl. Phys.14, 1259–1260 (1975)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    A. Yoshikawa, Y. Sakai: Sol. State Electron.20, 133–137 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    M. Bettini, K.J. Bachmann, E. Buehler, J.L. Shay, S. Wagner: J. Appl. Phys.48, 1603–1606 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    T. Saitoh, S. Matsubara, S. Minagawa: Jap. J. Appl. Phys.16, 807–812 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    L.L. Kazmerski, F.R. White, M.S. Ayyagari, Y.J. Juang, R.P. Patterson: J. Vac. Sci. Technology14, 65–68 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    H. Fischer: Thesis, Tech. University Braunschweig (1970)Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    R.J. Stirn: private communicationGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    R.J. Stirn, Y.C.M. Yeh: Appl. Phys. Lett.27, 95–98 (1975); and Proc. 11th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1975) pp. 437–438ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    R.J. Stirn, Y.C.M. Yeh, E.Y. Wang, F.P. Ernest, C.J. Wu: Technical Digest of the 1977 Intern Electron Device Meeting, Washington D.C. (Dec. 1977)Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    R.J. Stirn, Y.C.m. Yeh: IEEE Trans. ED-24, 476–483 (1977)ADSGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    R.J. Stirn, Y.C.M. Yeh: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 883–892Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    R.D. Dupuis, R.D. Dapkus, R.D. Yingling, L.A. Moudy, R.E. Johnson, A.G. Campbell: Proc. 19th Electronic Materials Conf., Cornell Univ. (1977) (to be published)Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    R.J. Stirn, Y.C.M. Yeh: Proc. 10th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York, 1974) pp. 15–24Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Y.C.M. Yeh, R.J. Stirn: Proc. 11th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1975) pp. 391–397Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    L. Hsu, E.Y. Wang: InPhotovoltaic Solar Energy Conf., ed. by A. Strub (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland 1977) pp. 1100–1108Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    E.Y. Wang, R.N. Legge: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 967–970Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    K.S. Harsha, K.J. Bachmann, P.H. Schmidt, E.G. Spencer, F.A. Thiel: Appl. Phys. Lett.30, 645–646 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    A.L. Fahrenbruch, F. Buch, K.W. Mitchell, R.H. Bube: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 529–533; and Proc. 11th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1975) pp. 490–496; and [Ref. 12, pp. 487–492]Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    F. Buch, A.L. Fahrenbruch, R.H. Bube: Appl. Phys. Lett.28, 593–595 (1976); and [Ref. 12, pp. 487–492]ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    F. Buch, A.L. Fahrenbruch, R.H. Bube: J. Appl. Phys.48, 1596–1602 (1977); and [Ref. 12, pp. 487–492]ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    A.V. Vanyukov, P.S. Kireev, E.N. Figurovskii, A.P. Korovin, Z.P. Vishnyakova: Sov. Phys. Semicond.3, 1297–1298 (1970)Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    I.K. Andronik, P.A. Gashin, I.V. Dementiev, G.P. Listunov, L.M. Panasyuk, A.Y. Simashkevich, D.A. Sherban: Proc. Intern. Conf. on Phys. and Chem. of Semiconductor Heterojunctions (Akademiai Kiadó, Budapest 1971) Vol. II, pp. 211–219Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Y.A. Fedotov, V.A. Supalov, T.P. Manuilova, A.V. Vanyukov, N.M. Kondaurov: Sov. Phys.-Semicond.5, 1396–1397 (1972)Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    G.P. Naumov, O.V. Nikolaeva, Sov. Phys.-Sol. State3, 2718 (1961)Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Y.A. Vodakov, G.A. Lomakina, G.P. Naumov, Y.P. Maslakovets: Sov. Phys. Sol. State2, 1–4 and 11–17 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    J. Mimila-Arroyo, A. Bouazzi, G. Cohen-Solal: Rev. Physique Appl.12, 423–426 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    B. Kandilarov, R. Andreytchin: Phys. Stat. Sol.8, 897–901 (1965)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    K. Yamaguchi, H. Matsumoto, N. Nakayama, S. Ikegami: Japan. J. Appl. Phys.15, 1575–1576 (1976)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    K. Yamaguchi, N. Nakayama, H. Matsumoto, S. Ikegami: Japan. J. Appl. Phys.16, 1203–1211 (1977)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    N. Nakayama, H. Matsumoto, K. Yamaguchi, S. Ikegami, Y. Hioki: Japan. J. Appl. Phys.15, 2281–2282 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    J. Bernard, R. Lancon, C. Paparoditis, M. Rodot: Rev. Physique Appl.1, 211–216 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    J. Lebrun: Rev. Physique Appl.1, 204–208 (1966); and Proc. 8th Photovoltaic Specialist Conf. (IEEE, New York 1970) pp. 33–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    M. Rodot: Rev. Physique Appl.12, 411–416 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    K.W. Mitchell, A.L. Fahrenbruch, R.H. Bube: Solid State Electron.20, 559–561 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    K. W. Mitchell, A. L. Fahrenbruch, R. H. Bube: J. Appl. Phys.48, 4365–4371 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    A. L. Fahrenbruch, J. Aranovich, F. Courrages, S. Y. Yin, R. H. Bube: InPhotovoltaic Solar Energy Conf. ed. by A. Strub (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland 1977), pp. 608–617Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    P. A. Gashin, A. V. Simashkevich: Phys. Stat. Soi. (a)19, 615–623, and 379–386 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Y. Y. Ma, A. L. Fahrenbruch, R. H. Bube: Appl. Phys. Lett.30, 423–424 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    D. Bonnet, H. Rabenhorst: Proc. 9th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1972) pp. 129–132Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    K. Yamaguchi, N. Nakayama, H. Matsumoto, Y. Hioki, S. Ikegami: Japan. J. Appl. Phys.14, 1397–1398 (1975)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    G. Cohen-Solal, L. Svob, Y. Marfaing, E. Janik, E. Castro: Proc. 9th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1972), pp. 28–36Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    T. S. te Velde, J. Dieleman: Philips Res. Repts.28, 573–595 (1973)Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    T. S. te Velde: Energy Conversion14, 111–115 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    D. C. Reynolds, G. Seies, L. L Antes, R. E. Marburger: Phys. Rev.96, 533–534 (1954)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    S. R. Das, P. Nath, A. Banerjee, K. L. Chopra: Sol. State Commun.21, 49–51 (1977)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    A. M. Barnett, J. D. Meakin, A. Rothwarf: InPhotovoltaic Solar Energy Conf. ed. by A. Strub (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland 1977) pp. 535–546; and Proc. 12th IEEE Photovoltaic Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 544–546Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    L. C. Burton, T. L. Hench: Appl. Phys. Lett.29, 612–614 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    K. W. Böer, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a)40, 355–384 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    K. W. Böer: Proc. 11th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1975) pp. 514–515Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    W. Palz, J. Besson T. Nguyen Duy, J. Vedel: Proc. 10th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1973) pp. 69–76Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    H. Matsumoto, N. Nakayama, K. Yamaguchi, S. Ikegami: Japan. J. Appl. Phys.16, 1283–1284 (1977)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    K. Bogus, S. Mattes: Proc. 9th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1972) pp. 106–110Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    W. Arndt, G. Bilger, W. H. Bloss, G. H. Hewig, F. Pfisterer, H. W. Schock: InPhotovoltaic Solar Energy Conf., ed. by A. Strub (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland 1977) pp. 547–556Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    L. C. Burton, T. Hench, G. Storti, G. Haacke: J. Electrochem. Soc.123, 1741–1744 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    J. F. Jordan: Proc. 11th IEEE Photovoltaic Conf. (IEEE, New York 1975) pp. 508–513Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    V. N. Komashchenko, G. A. Fedorus: Ukr. Fiz. Zh.13, 688–690 (1968)Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    V. N. Komashchenko, St. Kinev, A. I. Marchenko, G. A. Fedorus: Ukr. Fiz. Zh.13, 2086–2088 (1968)Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    D. A. Cusano: Solid State Electron.6 217–232 (1963)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    D. A. Cusano: Rev. Physique Appl.1, 195–200 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    E. W. Justi, G. Schneider, J. Seredynski: Energy Conversion13, 53–56 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    M. Guillien, P. Leitz, G. Marchal, W. Palz:Solar Cells (Gordon & Breach, London, New York, Paris 1971) pp. 207–214Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    J. Lebrun, G. Bessonneau:Solar Cells (Gordon & Breach, London, New York, Paris 1971) pp. 201–206Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    H. Lozykowski: Czech. J. Phys. B13, 164–171 (1963)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    H. G. Grimmeiss, R. Memming: J. Appl. Phys.33, 2217–2223 (1962)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    D. Bonnet: InPhotovoltaic Solar Energy Conf., ed. by A. Strub (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland 1977) pp. 630–637, and private communicationGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    R. O. Bell, H. B. Serreze, F. V. Wald: Proc. 11th Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1975) pp. 497–502Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    J. P. Ponpon, P. Siffert: Rev. Physique Appl.12, 427–430 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    D. Trivich, E. Y. Wang, R. J. Komp, F. Ho: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 875–878Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    G. B. Abdullaev, M. R. Akhundov, G. A. Akundov: Phys. Stat. Sol.16, 209–214 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    A. Segura, J. M. Besson, A. Chevy, M. S. Martin: Il Nuovo Cimento38B, 345–351 (1977)ADSGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    T. Matsushita, A. Suzuki, M. Okuda, T. T. Nang: Japan. J. Appl. Phys.16, 2057–2058 (1977)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    T. Matsushita, A. Suzuki, M. Okuda, T. T. Nang: Japan. J. Appl. Phys.15, 2461–2462 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    T. T. Nang, M. Okuda, T. Matsushita, S. Yokota, A. Suzuki: Japan. J. Appl. Phys.15, 383–384 (1976)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    M. Okuda, T. T. Nang, T. Matsushita, S. Yokota: Japan. J. Appl. Phys.14, 1597–1598 (1975)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    J. M. Besson: private communicationGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    T. T. Nang, T. Matsushita, M. Okuda, A. Suzuki: Japan. J. Appl. Phys.16, 253–257 (1977)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    T. Matsushita, T. T. Nang, M. Okuda, A. Suzuki, S. Yokota: Japan. J. Appl. Phys.15, 901–902 (1976)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    C. Clemen, A. Möller, P. Munz, J. Hönigschmid, E. Bucher: InPhotovoltaic Solar Energy Conf ed. by A. Strub (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland 1977) pp. 638–643Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    A. S. Borshchevskii, A. A. Lebedev, I. A. Mal'tseva, K. Ovezov, Yu. V. Rud', Yu. K. Undalov: Sov. Phys.-Semicond.9, 1278–1282 (1975)Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    A. S. Borshchevskii, N. E. Dagina, A. A. Lebedev, K. Ovezov, I. K. Polushina, Yu. V. Rud: Sov. Phys.-Semicond.10, 934–935 (1976)Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Ch. Dovletmuradov, K. Ovezov, V. D. Prochukhan, Yu. V. Rud, M. Serginov: Sov. Phys.-Techn. Phys. Lett.1, 382–383 (1975)Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    G. A. Medvekin, K. Ovezov, Yu. V. Rud, V. I. Sokolova: Sov. Phys.-Semicond.10, 1239–1242 (1976)Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Yu. V. Rud, K. Ovezov: Sov. Phys.-Semicond.10, 561–564 (1976)Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    A. V. Anshon, B.N. Zvonkov I. A. Karpovich, V. V. Podol'skii: Izvest. Vyssich. Uchebn. Zaved. Fiz.1, 135–137 (1974)Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    N. A. Goryunova, A. V. Anshon, I. A. Karpovich, E. I. Leonov, V. M. Orlov: Phys. Stat. Sol. (a)2, K117-K120 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    J. L. Shay, K. J. Bachmann, E. Buehler, J. H. Wernick: Appl. Phys. Lett.23, 226–228 (1973)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    J. L. Shay, K. J. Bachmann, E. Buehler: J. Appl. Phys.45, 1302–1310 (1974)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    K. J. Bachmann, E. Buehler, J. L. Shay, G. W. Kammlott: Electron. Mat.3, 451–473 (1974)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    A. A. Lebedev, K. Ovezov, Yu. V. Rud: Sov. Phys.-Semicond.10, 78–80 (1976)Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    V. S. Grigoreva, A. A. Lebedev, K. Ovezov, V. D. Prochukhan, Yu. V. Rud, A. A. Yakovenko: Sov. Phys.-Semicond.9, 1058–1059 (1975)Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    A. A. Lebedev, K. Ovezov, V. D. Prochukhan, Yu. V. Rud: Sov Phys.-Techn. Phys. Lett.1, 93–94 (1975)Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    L. L. Kazmerski: InTernary Compounds 1977, ed. by G. D. Holah, Institute of Physics Conf. Series No. 35 (Institute of Physics, London 1977) pp. 217–228Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    L. L. Kazmerski, G. A. Sanborn: J. Appl. Phys.48, 3178–3180 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    L. L. Kazmerski, F. R. White, G. A. Sanborn, A. J. Merrill, M. S., Ayyagari, S. D., Mittleman, G. A. Morgan: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp.534–539Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    B. Tell, P. Bridenbaugh, J. Appl. Phys.48, 2477–2480 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    B. Tell, P. M. Bridenbaugh, H. Kasper: J. Appl. Phys.47, 619–620 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    N. Romeo, G. Sberveglieri, L. Tarricone, C. Paorici: Appl. Phys. Lett.30, 108–110 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    J. L. Shay, S. Wagner, H. M. Kasper: Appl. Phys. Lett.27, 89–90 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    S. Wagner, J. L. Shay, H. M. Kasper: J. Physique, Colloque C3 (Supplement)36, C3 101–104 (1975)Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    S. Wagner, J.L. Shay, P. Migliorato, H. M. Kasper: Appl. Phys. Lett.25, 434–435 (1974)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    J. L. Shay, S. Wagner, K. J. Bachmann, E. Buehler, H. M. Kasper: Proc. 11th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1975) pp. 503–507Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    L. L. Kazmerski, F. R. White, G. K. Morgan: Appl. Phys. Lett.29, 268–270 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Y. Kokubun, M. Wada: Japan. J. Appl. Phys.16, 879–880 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    B. T. Kolomiets: Phys. Stat. Sol.7, 359–372 and 713–731 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    B. T. Kolomiets, V. M. Lyubin, V. S. Maidzinskii, R. A. Plisova, G. A. Fedorova, E. I. Fedorova: Sov. Phys.-Semicond.5, 1339–1345 (1972)Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    H. Y. Wey, H. Fritsche: J. Noncristalline Solids8=10, 336–340 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    S. V. Bulyarskii, L. S. Koval, S. I. Radautsan:All Union Conf. Ternary Semiconductors and their Application (Izd. Shtiintza, Kishinev 1976) pp. 165–168Google Scholar
  247. 247.
    C. W. Tang, A. C. Albrecht: Nature254, 507–509 (1975); and J. Chem. Phys.63, 953–961 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    C. W. Tang, A. C. Albrecht: J. Chem. Phys.62, 2139–2149 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    N. A. Dimond, T. K. Mukherjee: Discuss. Faraday Soc.51, 102–109 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    V. Y. Merritt, H. J. Hovel: Appl. Phys. Lett.29, 414–415 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    M. Matsumara, H. Uohashi, M. Furusawa, N. Yamamoto, H. Tsubomura: Bull Chem. Soc. Jap.48, 1965–1969 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    A. K. Ghosh, D. L. Morel, T. Feng, R. F. Shaw, C. A. Rowe, Jr.: J. Appl. Phys.45, 230–236 (1974)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    M. I. Fedorov, V. A. Benderski: Sov. Phys.-Semicond.4, 1720–1722 (1971)Google Scholar
  254. 254.
    M. I. Fedorov, V. A. Benderskii: Sov. Phys.-Semicond.4, 1198 (1971)Google Scholar
  255. 255.
    N. N. Usov, V. A. Benderski: Sov. Phys.-Semicond.2, 580–586 (1968)Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    H. Meier, W. Albrecht, U. Tschirwitz, E. Zimmerhackl, N. Geheeb: Ber. Bunsenges. physik. Chem.81, 592–598 (1977)Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    Y. I. Vertsimakha, M. V. Kurik: Microelectronica1, 275–277 (1972)Google Scholar
  258. 258.
    H. Meier, W. Albrecht: Ber. Bunsenges. physik. Chem.68, 64–70 (1964)Google Scholar
  259. 259.
    K. Okumura: J. Appl. Phys.45, 5317–5323 (1974)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    P. J. Reucroft, K. Takahashi, H. Ullal: J. Appl. Phys.46, 5218–5223 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    P. H. Fang, A. Golubovic, N. A. Dimond: Japan J. Appl. Phys.11, 1298–1302 (1972)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    A. K. Ghosh, T. Feng: J. Appl. Phys.44, 2781–2788 (1973)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    P. H. Fang: J. Appl. Phys.45, 4672–4673 (1974)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    L. P. Hunt: Proc. 12th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1976) pp. 347–352Google Scholar
  265. 265.
    L. W. James, R. L. Moon: Appl. Phys. Lett.26, 467–470 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    S. Wagner, J. L. Shay, K. J. Bachmann, E. Buehler: J. Electrochem. Soc.123, 1254–1256 (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    A. Catalano, V. Dalal, E. A. Fagen, R. B. Hall, J. V. Masi, J. D. Meakin, G. Warfield, A. M. Barnett: InPhotovoltaic Solar Energy Conf., ed. by A. Strub (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, Holland 1977) pp. 644–653Google Scholar
  268. 268.
    E. Bucher, P. Munz, A. Möller: InForschung Aktuell, Sonnenenergie II, ed. by H. Matthöfer, (Umschau Verlag, Frankfurt 1977) pp. 387–400Google Scholar
  269. 269.
    L. I. Berger, V. D. Prochukhan:Ternary Diamondlike Semiconductors (Consultants Bureau, New York, London 1969)Google Scholar
  270. 270.
    J. L. Shay, J. H. Wernick:Ternary Chalcopyrite Semiconductors: Growth, Electronic Properties and Applications (Pergamon Oxford, New York 1975)Google Scholar
  271. 271.
    R. C. J. Draper, A. Miller:Ternary Compounds 1977, ed. by G. D. Holah Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. No. 35 (Institute of Physics, London 1977) pp. 265–324Google Scholar
  272. 272.
    J. M. Meese, J. C. Manthuruthil, D. R. Locker: Bull. Am. Phys. Soc.20, 696 (1975)Google Scholar
  273. 273.
    E. Parthé.Crystal Chemistry of Tetrahedral Structures (Gordon & Breach, New York, London 1964)Google Scholar
  274. 274.
    J. Physique36, C3, 1–194 (1975); and Ternary Compounds 1977, ed. by G. D. Holah, Inst. Phys. Conference Series No. 35 (Institute of Physics, London 1977)Google Scholar
  275. 275.
    A. Meier:Organic Semiconductors (Verlag Chemie, Weinheim 1974)Google Scholar
  276. 276.
    F. Gutman, L. E. Lyons:Organic Semiconductors (J. Wiley, New York 1967)Google Scholar
  277. 277.
    E. J. Charlson, W. F. Richardson: Proc. 13th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1978) to be publishedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    G. Cheek, D. Ellsworth, A. Genis, I. Dubow: Proc. 20th Electronic Materials Conf. (IEEE, New York1978) to be published in J. Electron Mat.8)Google Scholar
  279. 279.
    J. I. B. Wilson, J. Mc Gill, P. Robinson: Proc. 13th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1978) to be publishedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    M. Ettenberg, G. H. Olsen, R. V. D'Aiello: Proc. 20th Electronic Materials Conf. (IEEE, New York 1978) to be published in J. Electron. Mat.8)Google Scholar
  281. 281.
    K. J. Bachmann, W. R. Sinclair, F. A. Thiel, H. Schreiber, Jr., P. H. Schmidt, E. G. Spencer, E. Buehler, K. SreeHarsha: Proc. 13th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1978) to be publishedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    M. J. Cohen, J. S. Harris: Proc. 20th Electronic Materials Conf. (IEEE, New York 1978) (to be published in J. Electron Mat.8)Google Scholar
  283. 283.
    C. Clemen, X. I. Saldaña, P. Munz, E. Bucher: Phys. Stat. Solidi (a) to be publishedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    A. Catalano, V. Datal, E. A. Fagen, R. B. Hall, J. V. Masi, J. D. Meakin, G. Warfield, N. Convers Wyeth, A. M. Barnett: Proc. 13th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1978) to be publishedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    L. L. Kazmerski, P. Sheldon: Proc. 13th IEEE Photovoltaic Spec. Conf. (IEEE, New York 1978) to be publishedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    D. L. Morel, A. K. Ghosh, T. Feng, E. L. Stogryn, P. E. Purwing R. F. Shaw, C. Fishman: Appl. Phys. Lett.32, 495–497 (1978)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Bucher
    • 1
  1. 1.FB PhysikUniversität KonstanzKonstanzFed. Rep. Germany

Personalised recommendations