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Determination of deep trap levels in silicon using ion-implantation and CV-measurements

Abstract

Differential capacitance measurements on Schottky barrier contacts are used to determinedeep energy levels for 29 different impurities implanted into silicon. Back-ground doping and deep levels are separated by making use of the sharply peaked implantation distribution. Donor or acceptor behavior is identified by the shape of the measured apparent charge profile. Energy levels measured for many impurities after annealing of the radiation damage agree with values known from literature. Other levels are caused by a non-thermal state of incorporation into the silicon lattice, e.g. for C, Si, and Ge, even after annealing of the radiation damage. Some impurities, e.g. Nb, Ni, Ti, and Na, show more than one state of incorporation, concentrations of which vary with the annealing conditions. Many implanted elements, especially those having a low solubility, e.g. Au, Be, Co, Se, etc., show strong out-diffusion and precipitation at the surface at annealing temperatures around 500°C.

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Schulz, M. Determination of deep trap levels in silicon using ion-implantation and CV-measurements. Appl. Phys. 4, 225–236 (1974). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00884233

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Index Headings

  • Deep traps
  • Ion implantation
  • Schottky barriers