Based on an accurate perturbation analysis of the guiding properties of dielectric gratings, simple design criteria are developed for grating couplers which transfer the energy of a beam into or out of an optical waveguide. Gratings having arbitrary groove shapes are considered and explicit formulae are given for the leakage parameters of gratings with symmetric profiles. The results cover TEv and TMv modes and they apply to both shallow and deep grating grooves. The variation of the leakage parameter α in rectangular gratings is examined in detail; these rectangular gratings are then used as basic configurations for predicting the characteristics of other grating profiles. Particular attention is given to trapezoidal and triangular profiles and gratings with asymmetric profiles are also discussed.
PACS Codes42.82 84
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