Roof bolting in underground mining: a state-of-the-art review

  • Syd S. Peng
  • D. H. Y. Tang


With continuing investigations and developments, roof bolting today can in most cases successfully reinforce the mine roof in underground mining. In order to cope with the increasing use of roof bolts, efforts should be made to maximize the safety and minimize the cost. With regard to mechanical bolting, two important parameters need more advanced improvements and study, namely, optimum design of the shape and type of expansion shell and optimum bolt tension for a specific bolt pattern. For the fully grouted resin bolt, the most critical requirement is to develop a fast-setting, low-cost, intoxic, inflammable grouting material that can be used in the high speed mining cycle. It should be noted that geological conditions such as the strata type, rock properties,in situ stress, and planes of weakness play an important role in the successful application of any roof bolting system. These factors should be specified as accurately and quantitatively as possible in the design of any roof bolting system. Finally, proper and careful installation and continuous monitoring are imperative for the success of any roof bolting system.


Rock bolting underground mining strata control support rock mechanics 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alexander, L.G. and Hosking, A.D. (1971) Principles of rock bolting formation of a support medium,Symposium on Rock Bolting, February, The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Illawarra Branch, Paper No. 1, 21 pp.Google Scholar
  2. American Society for Testing and Materials (1976)Standard Specifications for Roof and Rock Bolts and Accessories, ASTM Standard No. F 432-76a, 14 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, R.B. (1974) Use of resin-anchored roof bolts in adverse conditions,Mining Congress Journal, January, pp. 37–40.Google Scholar
  4. Atlas Copco (1982) Rock Reinforcement System, Swellex.Google Scholar
  5. Babcock, C.O. (1980) A plastic-elastic helical rock bolt,Proceedings of the 21st US Symposium on Rock Mechanics, University of Missouri-Rolla, Missouri, pp. 769–79.Google Scholar
  6. Barnes, E.L.S. (1971) Rock bolt testing,Symposium on Rock Bolting, February, The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Illawarra Branch, Paper No. 4.Google Scholar
  7. Barry, al. (1954)Use of Torque Wrench to Determine Load in Roof Bolts, Part 2, Expansion-Type 3/4 in. Bolts, USBM, RI 5080.Google Scholar
  8. Carr, F. (1971) Recent developments in strata bolting in National Coal Board mines in the United Kingdom,Symposium on Rock Bolting, February, The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Illawarra Branch, Paper No. 11.Google Scholar
  9. Coates, D.F. and Yu, Y.S. (1970) Three-dimensional stress distributions around a cylindrical hole and anchor,Proceedings of the 2nd Congress of the International Society for Rock Mechanics, Belgrade, Vol. 3, pp. 175–82.Google Scholar
  10. Conway, al. (1974)Laboratory Studies of Yielding Rock Bolts, USBM, RI 8058.Google Scholar
  11. Dejean, M. and Raffoux, J.F. (1976) Mining drifts and tunnels: role of rockbolting and parameters in its selection, inTunnelling '76 (edited by M. J. Jones), London, Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, pp. 321–7.Google Scholar
  12. de la Cruz, R.V. (1964)Mechanism of Bolt Anchorage, MS Thesis in Mining Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University.Google Scholar
  13. de la Cruz, R.V. and Mulkey, J.R. (1980) Effects ofin situ stress on the stability of mine roof bolts,Mining Engineering,32, 1269–72.Google Scholar
  14. Dunham, R.K. (1976) Model studies of resin-anchored bolting reinforcement,Colliery Guardian 224, 593–8.Google Scholar
  15. Engineers International, Inc. (1978)Evaluation of Roof Bolt Tension Indicator, USBM Contract No. HO166096, November, Illinois.Google Scholar
  16. Engineers International, Inc. (1979)Development and Testing of Self-Drilling Roof Bolts, prepared for USBM under Contract HO272022.Google Scholar
  17. Envirotech Corporation (1976)Large Scale Field Test of Pumpable Roof Bolts, prepared for USBM under Contract HO232041.Google Scholar
  18. Fairhurst, C. and Singh, B. (1974)Roofbolting in Horizontally Laminated Rock, E/MJ, February, pp. 80–90.Google Scholar
  19. Farmer, I.W. (1975) Stress distribution along a resin grouted rock anchor,International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mineral Sciences, Geomechanics Abstracts,12, 347–51.Google Scholar
  20. Fazio, C.P. (1982) Remote control roof bolting,Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Ground Control in Mining, West Virginia University, pp. 188–97.Google Scholar
  21. Foster, al. (1975)Development of Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques for Large Rock Specimens, Report No. ORNL-TM-4899, National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, June 1975.Google Scholar
  22. Foundation Sciences, Inc. (1976)Tests of Inclined Roof Bolts and Analysis of Their Effectiveness in Roof Control in Coal Mines, USBM Contract HO252071.Google Scholar
  23. Franklin, J.A. and Woodfield, P.F. (1971) Comparison of a polyester resin and a mechanical rockbolt anchor,Transactions of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy 80, A91–100.Google Scholar
  24. Frazer and Jones Co. with New Business Ventures Division/3M, Shell Lock II with 3M ‘No Mix Resin’ Mine Roof Bolt Anchoring Systems.Google Scholar
  25. Fuller, P.G. and Cadby, G.W. (1981)Pre-tensioning Rock Bolts, CSIR, Australia, Technical Paper No. 113, March.Google Scholar
  26. Gardner, F.J. (1971) History of rock bolting,Symposium on Rock Bolting, February 1971, The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Illawarra Branch, Paper No. 2, 11 pp.Google Scholar
  27. Gerdeen, al. (1977)Design Criteria for Roof Bolting Plans Using Fully Resin-Grouted Nontensioned Bolts to Reinforce Bedded Mine Roof, USBM, Contract No. JO366004, Michigan Technological University, Vol. IV.Google Scholar
  28. Haas, C.J. (1975) Shear resistance of rock bolts, Presented at104th Annual Meeting of American Institute of Mining, Metallurgical and Petroleum Engineers, February, 32–40.Google Scholar
  29. Haas, al. (1978)An Investigation of the Interaction of Rock and Types of Rock Bolts for Selected Loading Conditions, prepared for USBM, University of Missouri-Rolla, May.Google Scholar
  30. Hawkes, J.M. and Evans, R.H. (1951) Bond stresses in reinforced concrete columns and beams,Structural Engineering 29, 323–8.Google Scholar
  31. Howe, B.J. (1968)Roof Bolt Anchorage in Mudstone, Australian Coal Industry Research Laboratories Ltd, RR 68-1, January.Google Scholar
  32. Karabin, G.J. and Debevec, W.J. (1978)Comparative Evaluation of Conventional and Resin Bolting Systems, US Department of Interior, MESA, IR 1033.Google Scholar
  33. Karabin, G.J. and Hoch, M.T. (1979)An Operational Analysis of Point Resin-Anchored Bolting Systems, MESA, IR 1100.Google Scholar
  34. Kmetz, W.J. (1970) Roof trusses support problem strata,Coal Age, January, 64–8.Google Scholar
  35. Lang, T.A. (1958) Rock bolting speeds Snowy Mountains project,Civil Engineering, February, pp. 40–2.Google Scholar
  36. Lang, T.A. (1961) Theory and practice of rock bolting,Transactions of the AIME 220, 333–48.Google Scholar
  37. Lang, T.A., Bischoff, J.A. and Wagner, P.L. (1979)A Program Plan for Determining Optimum Roof Bolt Tension, Theory and Application of Rock Reinforcement Systems in Coal Mines, Leeds, Hill, and Jewett, Inc., a contract report submitted to US Bureau of Mines, March, Vol. 1, pp. 255.Google Scholar
  38. McCormick, al. (1974) Survey of resin bolting installations,Mining Congress Journal, July, pp. 28–32.Google Scholar
  39. Mahyera, al. (1981) Controlled thrust and torque placement of mechanical anchor bolts and their relationship to improved roof control,Proceeding of the 1st Conference on Ground Control in Mining, West Virginia University, pp. 98–105.Google Scholar
  40. Mitchell, D.W. and Debevec, W.J. (1970) A new look at roof bolts,Coal Mining and Processing, February, pp. 34–6.Google Scholar
  41. Moss, K.J. (1971) Rock bolts in current use in Australia,Symposium on Rock Bolting, February, The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Illawarra Branch, Paper No. 5.Google Scholar
  42. Nitzche, R.M. (1976) Installation induced stresses for grouted rock bolts,International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mineral Sciences, Geomechanics Abstracts 13, 17–24.Google Scholar
  43. Norris, C. and Yearby, M. (1980)The Choice of Support Available, The Australian IMM, Illawarra Branch, Roof Support Colloquium, September, pp. 4-1–4-17.Google Scholar
  44. Obert, L. and Duvall, W.I. (1967)Rock Mechanics and the Design of Structures in Rock, Wiley, New York, pp. 612–38.Google Scholar
  45. Panek, L.A. (1956a)Theory of Model Testing as Applied to Roof Bolting, USBM, RI 5154.Google Scholar
  46. Panek, L.A. (1956b)Design of Bolting Systems to Reinforce Bedded Mine Roof, USBM, RI 5155.Google Scholar
  47. Panek, L.A. (1956c)Principles of Reinforcing Bedded Mine Roof with Bolts, USBM, RI 5156.Google Scholar
  48. Panek, L.A. (1961) Use of vertical roof bolts to reinforce an arbitrary sequence of beds,Proceedings of the International Symposium on Mining Research, University of Missouri, Vol. 2, pp. 499–508.Google Scholar
  49. Panek, L.A. (1962a)The Effects of Suspension in Bolting Bedded Mine Roof, USBM, RI 6138.Google Scholar
  50. Panek, L.A. (1962b)The Combined Effects of Friction and Suspension in Bolting Bedded Mine Roof, USBM, RI 6139.Google Scholar
  51. Panek, L.A. (1964) Design for bolting stratified roof,Transactions of the Society of Mining Engineers, AIME, June, pp. 113–9.Google Scholar
  52. Panek, L.A. and McCormick, J.A. (1973) Roof/rock bolting, inSME Mining Engineering Handbook (edited by A.B. Cummings and I.A. Given), AIME, New York, pp. 13–125 to 13–134.Google Scholar
  53. Parson, E.W. and Osen, L. (1969)Load Loss from Rock-Bolt Anchor Creep, USBM, RI 7220.Google Scholar
  54. Peerlkamp, P. and Watt, K.L. (1971) Chemicals for bolt anchorages,Symposium on Rock Bolting, February, The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Illawarra Branch, Paper No. 3.Google Scholar
  55. Peng, S.S. (1978)Coal Mine Ground Control, John Wiley, New York, pp. 130–73.Google Scholar
  56. Peng, S.S. and Tang, D.H. (1983) unpublished report.Google Scholar
  57. Radcliffe, D.E. and Stateham, R.E. (1980)Stress Distribution Around Resin-Grouted Bolts, USBM RI 8440.Google Scholar
  58. Sawyer, al. (1976)Investigation of the Effects of Thrust and Hardened Washer on the Installed Tension of a Roof Bolt, US MSHA, IR 1031.Google Scholar
  59. Schach, R., Garshol, K. and Heltzen, A.M. (1979)Rock Bolting, A Practical Handbook, Norwegian Institute of Rock Blasting Techniques, Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  60. Scott, J.J. (1977) Friction rock stabilizers — a new rock reinforcement method, presented at the1977 SME-AIME Annual Meeting, Atlanta, Georgia.Google Scholar
  61. Scott, J.J. (1981) A new combination friction-suspension support system, Scott cable slings,1st Conference on Ground Control in Mining, West Virginia University, pp. 132–6.Google Scholar
  62. Serbousek, M.O. and Bolstad, D.D. (1981) Inorganic cement grouted bolt system,Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Ground Control in Mining, West Virginia University, pp. 137–40.Google Scholar
  63. Shutack, J.B. and Hanna, N.E. (1968)Evaluation of the Explosive-Anchored Rock Bolt, US Bureau of Mines, RI 7163.Google Scholar
  64. Sinou, P. and Dejean, M. (1980) Types of rods for strata bolting, accessories and setting equipment, FrenchRock Bolting, Industrie Minérale, pp. 12–22.Google Scholar
  65. Smelser, T.W., Dar, S.M., Pettibone, H.C. and Bolstad, D.D. (1982)Modeling and Field Verification of Roof-Bolt Systems, presented at the SME-AIME Annual Meeting, Dallas, Texas, February.Google Scholar
  66. Stateham, R.M. (1982) Roof bolt bond tester; a device for non-destructive testing of grouted bolts,Proceedings of the 2nd Conference on Ground Control in Mining, West Virginia University, pp. 183–7.Google Scholar
  67. Stefanko, R. (1961)Underground Stress Instrumentation and Support Evaluation, PhD Dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University.Google Scholar
  68. Stefanko, R. and Choi, D.S. (1970) Anchorage performance in rock bolting,Transactions of the Society of Mining Engineers 247, March, 88–92.Google Scholar
  69. Stefanko, R. and de la Cruz, R.V. (1964) Mechanism of load loss in roof bolts,Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on Rock Mechanics, University of Missouri-Rolla, October, pp. 293–309.Google Scholar
  70. Tincelin, E. (1970) Roof-bolting recommendations,Exploration and Exploitation of Mineral Deposits and Mineral Processing, Parley of Co-operation and Industrial Promotion, Sydney, May.Google Scholar
  71. US Government (1969)Coal Mine Health and Safety Act, in Code of Federal Regulations 30, Mineral Resources, revised 1974, pp. 342–9.Google Scholar
  72. Van Ham, F. and Tsur-Lavie, Y. (1970) Reinforcement effect and action of perpendicular and inclined roofbolts in layered rock formations,Proceedings of the 2nd Congress of ISRM, Beograd, Vol. 2, pp. 457–67.Google Scholar
  73. Wade, L.V., Kwitowski, A.J. and Judeikis, J.F. (1977) Investigation of full column resin bolt reinforcement mechanisms,Proceedings of the 6th International Strata Control Conference, Banff, Canada.Google Scholar
  74. Wilding, R.R. and Thomson, M.L. (1981) Development of a resin point anchor,Proceedings of the 1st Conference on Ground Control in Mining, West Virginia University, pp. 141–3.Google Scholar
  75. Worley Roof Bolt (1977) Gulf and Western Industries, Mine Roof Support System.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Chapman and Hall Ltd 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Syd S. Peng
    • 1
  • D. H. Y. Tang
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mining Engineering, College of Mineral and Energy ResourcesWest Virginia UniversityMorgantownUSA

Personalised recommendations