The thermal energy balance and the temperature profile of the Hakone volcano are considered quantitatively. Across the Hakone volcano and its surroundings the heat flow values vary from 10−1 to 103 mW/m2, due to thermal conduction and mass flow involving volcanic steam and hot spring discharge. An area with extremely low heat flow is observed in the western side of the caldera showing the presence of percolating meteoric water. The hydrothermal activity is intense in the eastern half of the caldera.
The total heat discharge from the high temperature zone (discharge area) of the Hakone volcano amounts to 11.0×107 W. The magmatic steam energy discharge is 95.0×106 W. The thermal energy by redistribution of the terrestrial heat flow by the lateral deep ground water flow is calculated to be 9.00×106 W. For the model having the vertical vent in the volcano's central part up to 1 km depth below the ground surface from a magma reservoir the computed temperature distribution is consistent with the observed values. The depth of the magma reservoir is 7 km below the ground surface and the diameter is 5 km.
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Iriyama, J., Ōki, Y. Thermal structure and energy of the Hakone volcano, Japan. PAGEOPH 117, 331–337 (1978). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00879758
- Thermal energy redistribution
- Magmatic steam discharge
- Heat flow variations
- Deep ground water flow
- Magma reservoir