Hydralazine was administered at cardiac catheterization to eight children with a ventricular septal defect (age: 2.2–8.8 years), and the extent of afterload reduction was determined using aortic input impedance and wall stress. The pulmonary to systemic blood flow ratio decreased from 2.2±0.8 to 1.8±0.4 (p<0.05) and the pulmonary systemic resistance ratio increased from 0.11±0.08 to 0.13±0.10 (p<0.05) after hydralazine administration. Hydralazine reduced mean aortic pressure and the amplitude of the late systolic peak of the aortic pressure wave. Peak flow velocity in the descending aorta increased from 62±14 to 81±24 cm/sec (p<0.05). Peripheral resistance decreased significantly from 13.3±5.9 to 6.6±3.7 103 dyn sec/cm3 (p<0.05). The modulus of the first harmonic, indicating pulse wave reflection, decreased from 1196±575 to 815±382 dyn sec/cm3 (p<0.05). The characteristic impedance, indicating aortic stiffness, did not change. End-systolic wall stress decreased significantly from 54.4±16.7 to 34.8±10.2 g/cm2 (p<0.01). Hydralazine acutely achieved afterload reduction by reducing both peripheral resistance and pulse wave reflection, and increased stroke volume.
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Endo, H., Shiraishi, H. & Yanagisawa, M. Afterload reduction by hydralazine in children with a ventricular septal defect as determined by aortic input impedance. Cardiovasc Drug Ther 8, 161–166 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00877105
- ventricular septal defect
- afterload wall stress
- aortic input impedance