two-dimensional time dependent model of the stratosphere incorporating the major interactions between radiative-photochemical and dynamical processes is described. The main prognostic equations considered are the thermodynamic equation and the general conservation equation for the minor chemical constituents representing the odd oxygen (O x =O+('D)+O3), odd hydrogen (HO x =HO+HO2), N2O, odd nitrogen (NO x =NO+NO2+HNO3), CF2Cl2, CFCl3 and odd chlorine (Cl x =Cl+ClO+HCl). The zonal wind and mean meridional circulations are determined diagnostically by the integration of the thermal wind equation and the stream function equation in the meridional plane espectively. The large scale eddy processes are parameterized in terms of zonal mean quantities using the generalized diffusion formulation on a sloping surface. The radiative heating and cooling and the hotochemical sources and sinks are incorporated in a form which allows for the major interactions among the minor trace constituents, temperature and mean circulation.
Two integrations consisting of natural stratosphere and a stratosphere contaminated by the chlorofluoromethanes through lower boundary fluxes are carried out for 23 model years by changing the declination of the sun every day and using 6-hour time step. The model simulations of temperature, mean circulation, ozone, HO x , N2O and NO x in the meridional plane for the normal stratosphere, show satisfactory agreement with the available observations. Based on the results of second integration it is found that the injection of chlorofluoromethanes in the atmosphere at the estimated current production rates can lead to significant changes in the meridional distribution of ozone, temperature and NO x in the middle and upper stratosphere. The results also indicate that the percentage total ozone depletion increases from tropics to high latitudes and from summer to winter high latitudes. Also discussed are the results of additional experiments incorporating the reaction of HO2 with NO and the reactions involving ClNO3.
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Rao Vupputuri, R.K. The structure of the natural stratosphere and the impact of chlorofluoromethanes on the ozone layer investigated in a 2-D time dependent model. PAGEOPH 117, 448–485 (1978). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00876628
- 2-D model