Surface-rupture patterns and aftershock distributions accompanying moderate to large shallow earthquakes reveal a residual brittle infrastructure for established crustal fault zones, the complexity of which is likely to be largely scale-invariant. In relation to such an infrastructure, continued displacement along a particular master fault may involve three dominant mechanical processes of rock brecciation: (a)attrition brecciation, from progressive frictional wear along principal slip surfaces during both seismic and aseismic sliding, (b)distributed crush brecciation, involving microfracturing over broad regions when slip on the principal slip surfaces is impeded by antidilational jogs or other obstructions, and (c)implosion brecciation, associated with the sudden creation of void space and fluid-pressure differentials at dilational fault jogs during earthquake rupture propagation. These last, high-dilation breccias are particularly favorable sites for hydrothermal mineral deposition, forming transitory low-pressure channels for the rapid passage of hydrothermal fluids. Long-lived fault zones often contain an intermingling of breccias derived from all three processes.
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Sibson, R.H. Brecciation processes in fault zones: Inferences from earthquake rupturing. PAGEOPH 124, 159–175 (1986). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00875724