Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Studies on night radiation at some Indian Stations

  • 27 Accesses

  • 4 Citations


The present paper contains studies of the nocturnal radiation at some Indian Stations (Madras, Waltair, Nagpur, New Delhi and Poona) with the help of the Ångström compensation Pyrgeometer. The technique of measurement is also described briefly. A study of the mean monthly variation of sky radiation during clear as well as all nights has been discussed. A comparitive study of mean monthly values of sky and other nocturnal radiation components at these stations is also presented.

Ångström, [4]2) expressed the dependence of sky radiationS—on water vapour pressuree (mm of mercury) at the earth's surface and air temperatureT (degrees absolute), near the instrument to be given byST 4 (0.75–0.32×10−0.069e) cal/cm2/min. According to this semi-empirical relationship, the calculated values of sky radiation for clear nights are smaller than the observed values of sky radiation at all the above stations. It is for this reason the authors obtained a new formula with different constants using nine years observed data at all the stations. To investigate the value of the constant, the mean annual observations presented for nine years from clear skies were analysed for correlations betweenB (black body radiation) versesS (sky radiation),N (net radiation) andE (absolute error) and obtained a good correlation co-efficients 0.90, 1 and 0.98 respectively. The new suggested formula isST 4 (0.88–0.32×10−0.069e) cal/cm2/min, 267° A<T<313° A. It is also verified using with observed data of different years of the stations. The agreement between the computed values with the new formula of sky radiation and observed sky radiation is found to be good.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. [1]

    A. Adel,Atmospheric absorption of infrared solar radiation at the Lowell observatory, I, Astrophys. J.89 (1939), 1–9.

  2. [2]

    A. Ångström,A study of the radiation of the atmosphere, Smithsonian Inst. Miscell. Collections65, 3 (1918).

  3. [3]

    A. Ångström,Solar and terrestial radiation, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.50 (1924), 121–126.

  4. [4]

    A. Ångström,Messungen der nächtlichen Ausstrahlung im Ballon, Beitr. Phys. frei. Atmos.14 (1928), 8–20.

  5. [5]

    A. Ångström,On the variation of atmospheric radiation, Gerlands Beitr. Geophysik21 (1929), 145.

  6. [6]

    A. Ångström, Meddel. Stat. Meteor. Hydrogr. Ant., Stockholm,6, 8 (1936). 0733 0406 V 2

  7. [7]

    F. Baur andH. Phillips,Der Wärmehaushalt der Lufthülle der Nordhalbkugel, Gerl. Beitr. Geophysik41 (1934), 160–207 and45 (1935), 82–132.

  8. [8]

    D. Brunt,Notes on radiation in the atmosphere, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.58 (1932), 389–420.

  9. [9]

    D. Brunt,Radiation in the atmosphere, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. (Canadian Suppl.)66 (1940), 34–40.

  10. [10]

    D. Brunt,Physical and dynamical meteorology, published by The Syndics of the Cambridge University Press (1952), 126–146.

  11. [11]

    O. Chacko,Further studies on the heat radiation from the night sky at Poona, Ind. J. Meteor. Geophys.2, 3 (1951), 190–196.

  12. [12]

    P. A. Davis,An analysis of the atmospheric heat budget, J. Atmos. Sci.20 (1963), 5–22.

  13. [13]

    W. M. Elsasser,Mean absorption and equivalent absorption co-efficient of a band spectrum, Phys. Rev.54 (1938), 126.

  14. [14]

    W. M. Elsasser,An atmospheric radiation chart and its use, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. (Canadian Suppl.),66 (1940), 41–56.

  15. [15]

    W. M. Elsasser,Heat transfer by infra-red radiation in the atmosphere, Harvard Meteor. Studies, No. 6 (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge 1942), 107 pp.

  16. [16]

    J. P. Funk,Improved polythene-shielded net radiometer, J. Sci. Inst.36 (1959), 267–270.

  17. [17]

    R. M. Goody,A statistical model for water vapour absorption, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.78 (1952), 165–169.

  18. [18]

    B. Haurwitz,Insolation in relation to cloudiness and cloud density, J. Meteor.2 (1945), 154–166.

  19. [19]

    G. Hettner, Ann. Physik55 (1918), 476.

  20. [20]

    H. G. Houghton,On the annual heat balance of the Northern Hemisphere, J. Meteor.11 (1954). 1–9.

  21. [21]

    H. Lettau,A study of the mass, momentum and energy budget of the atmosphere, Arch. Meteor. Geophys. Bicklim. [A]7 (1954), 133–137.

  22. [22]

    J. London,A study of the atmospheric heat balance, Final Report, Contract AF 19 (122)–165, Research Division, College of Engineering, New York University (1957), 99 pp.

  23. [23]

    O. Lönnqvist,Synthetic formulae for estimating effective radiation to a cloudless sky and their usefullness in comparing various estimation procedures, Arkiv Geofysik2 (1954), 245–294.

  24. [24]

    A. Mani andO. Chacko,Studies of nocturnal radiation at Poona and New Delhi, Ind. J. of Meteor. Geophys.14, 2 (1963), 196–204.

  25. [25]

    F. Möller,Long-wave radiation, Compendium of Meteorology (Boston, Massachusetts 1951), 34–49.

  26. [26]

    R. Mügge andF. Möller,Zur Berechnung von Strahlungsstromen und Temperaturänderungen in Atmosphären von beliebigem Aufbau, Z. Geophys.8 (1932), 53–64.

  27. [27]

    L. A. Ramdas, B. N. Sreenivasiah andP. K. Raman,Variation in the nocturnal radiation from the sky with zenith distance and with time during the night, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. [A]5, 1 (1937), 45–55.

  28. [28]

    L. A. Ramdas, --Variation in the nocturnal radiation from the sky with zenith distance and with time during the night, ibid.IX, 5 (1939), 386–389.

  29. [29]

    P. K. Raman,Heat radiation from the clear atmosphere at night, Ibid,1, 11 (1935), 815–820.

  30. [30]

    P. K. Raman,Studies in atmospheric radiation, Ibid.4 (1936), 243–253.

  31. [31]

    K. R. Ramanathan andB. N. Desai, Gerl. Beitr. Geophys.35 (1932), 68.

  32. [32]

    K. R. Ramanathan andL. A. Ramdas,Derivation of Ångström's formula for atmospheric radiation and some general considerations regarding nocturnal cooling of air-layers near the ground, Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. [A]1, 11 (1935), 822–829.

  33. [33]

    G. D. Robinson,Notes on the measurement and estimation of atmospheric radiation, I, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.73 (1947), 127–150.

  34. [34]

    G. D. Robinson,Notes on the measurement and estimation of atmospheric radiation II, Ibid.76 (1950), 37–51.

  35. [35]

    P. A. Sheppard,A Review of recent measurements of atmospheric emissivity in the infra-red, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.68 (1942), 210–213.

  36. [36]

    G. C. Simpson,Further studies in the Terrestrial Radiation, Memoirs Roy. Meteor. Soc.III (1928–1930), 1–26.

  37. [37]

    G. C. Simpson,The distribution of terrestrial radiation, Memoirs Roy. Meteor. Soc.III, 21–30 (1928–1930), 53–78.

  38. [38]

    O. G. Sutton,Micrometeorology (McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York 1953), 158–189.

  39. [39]

    W. C. Swinbank,Long-wave radiation from clear nights, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,89 (1963), 339–348 and with same title,90 (1964), 488–491.

  40. [40]

    L. R. Weblr andH. M. Randall,The absorption spectrum of water vapour beyond 10 μ, Phys. Rev.40, second series (1932), 835–847.

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Viswanadham, Y., Ramanadham, R. Studies on night radiation at some Indian Stations. PAGEOPH 68, 214–228 (1967). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00874896

Download citation


  • Mercury
  • Water Vapour
  • Indian Station
  • Black Body
  • Water Vapour Pressuree