Before data from satellites can be used with confidence in dynamical studies of the middle atmosphere an assessment of their reliability is necessary. To this end, independently analysed data from different instruments may be compared. In this paper, this is done for the Southern Hemisphere as a prelude to the dynamical studies of the middle atmosphere being fostered by the MASH project of the Middle Atmosphere Program. Data from two infrared radiometers are used: a limb scanner (LIMS) and a nadir sounder (SSU). While there is usually qualitative agreement between basic fields (temperatures, winds), substantial quantitative differences are found, with more pronounced differences in fields of Eliassen-Palm flux divergence and Ertel's potential vorticity.
The fidelity of the base-level analysis to which satellite data are tied is important for calculating quantities of relevance to dynamical theory. In the Southern Hemisphere, conventional data are sparse and, through the analysis procedure, this introduces errors into derived fields for the middle atmosphere. The impact of using base-level analyses from different sources is assessed. Large discrepancies are found in fields computed by differentiation.
Several techniques are suggested whereby the reliability of fields derived from satellite data may be gauged.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Clough, S. A., Grahame, N. S., andO'Neill, A. (1985),Potential vorticity in the stratosphere derived using data from satellites, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.111, 335–358.
Dunkerton, T. Hsu, C.-P. F., andMcIntyre, M. E. (1981),Some Eulerian and Lagrangian diagnostics for a model stratospheric warming, J. Atmos. Sci.38, 819–843.
Gille, J. C. andRusselll III, J. M. (1984),The limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere: Experiment description, performance and results, J. Geophys. Res.89, 5125–5140.
Gordley, L. L., andRussell III, J. M. (1981),Rapid inversion of limb radiance data using an emissivity growth approximation, Appl. Opt.20, 807–813.
Grose, W. L. (1984),Recent advances in understanding stratospheric dynamics and transport processes: Applications of satellite data to their interpretation, Adv. in Space Res.4, 19–28.
Grose, W. L., andRodgers, C. D., eds. (1986),Coordinated study of the behavior of the middle atmosphere in winter: Monthly-mean comparisons of satellite and radiosonde data and derived quantities, Handbook of Middle Atmosphere Program, Vol. 21.
Haggard, K. V., Remsberg, E. E., Grose, W. L. Russell III, J. M., Marshall, B. T., andLingenfelser, G. (1986),Description of data on the Nimbus-7 LIMS Map Archive Tape—Temperature and geopotential height, NASA Technical Paper 2553.
Hoskins, B. J., McIntyre, M. E., andRobertson, A. W. (1985),On the use and significance of isentropic potential vorticity maps, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc.,111, 877–946.
Karoly, D. J. (1987),The impact of base-level analyses on stratospheric circulation statistics for the Southern Hemisphere, Pure Appl. Geophys.130 (2/3), 181–194.
Leovy, C. B., Sun, C.-R., Hitchman, M. H., Remsberg, E. E., Russell, J. M., Gordley, L. L., Gille, J. C., andLyjak, L. V. (1985),Transport of ozone in the middle stratosphere: Evidence for planetary wave breaking, J. Atmos. Sci.42, 230–244.
McIntyre, M. E., andPalmer, T. N. (1983),Breaking planetary waves in the stratosphere, Nature305, 593–600.
McIntyre, M. E., andPalmer, T. N. (1984),The ‘surf zone’ in the stratosphere, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys.46, 825–849.
McIntrye, M. E., andPalmer, T. N. (1985),A note on the general concept of wave breaking for Rossby and gravity waves, Pure Appl. Geophys.123, 964–975.
Miles, T., andGrose, W. L. (1986),Transient medium-scale wave activity in the summer stratosphere, Bulletin Amer. Meteor. Soc.67, 674–686.
O'Neill, A., andGrose, W. L., eds., Proceedings of International Workshop, Williamsburg, Va., April, 1986.
Rodgers, C. D., ed. (1984),Report on the workshops on comparison of data and derived dynamical quantities during Northern Hemisphere winters (PMP-1 winters), Handbook of Middle Atmosphere Program, Vol. 12.
Pick, D. R., andBrownscombe, J. L. (1981),Early results based on the stratospheric channels of TOVS on the TIROS-N series of operational satellites, Int. Counc. Sci. Unions, Comm. Space Res., Adv. Space Res.1 (4), 247–260.
About this article
Cite this article
Grose, W.L., O'Neill, A. Comparison of data and derived quantities for the middle atmosphere of the Southern Hemisphere. PAGEOPH 130, 195–212 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00874455
- MASH project
- inter-comparison of satellite data