Advertisement

The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review

, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 35–77 | Cite as

Magnetic fields at the surfaces of stars

  • J. D. Landstreet
Article

Summary

Magnetic fields have now been detected in stars in several parts of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Roughly dipolar fields ranging in strength between 3× 102 and 3×104 G are found in many chemically peculiar A and B main sequence stars. Dipolar fields are also found in some 2–3% of white dwarfs, but with strengths between 1×106 and 5×108 G. In both these types of stars, the observed fields vary as the underlying star turns, but do not change in a secular manner. In solartype stars, structurally complex fields of a few kG are found with filling factors of the order of 0.1 to 0.8. Further indirect evidence of fields in cool main sequence stars is provided by detection of visible and ultraviolet line emission (chromospheric activity), x radiation (coronal matter), and giant starspots. In this review, we survey the observations of stellar magnetism in all these types of stars, as well as efforts to model the observed magnetic fields and associated photospheric peculiarities and activity.

Key words

Magnetic field — Stars activity of — Stars magnetic field — Stars peculiar A — Stars white dwarf 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Achilleos, N. and Wickramasinghe, D. T. 1989,Astrophys. J.,346, 444.Google Scholar
  2. Alecian, G. and Vauclair, S. 1981,Astron. Astrophys.,101, 16.Google Scholar
  3. Angel, J. R. P. 1977,Astrophys. J.,216, 1.Google Scholar
  4. Angel, J. R. P., Carswell, R., Strittmatter, P. A., Beaver, E. A. and Harms, R. 1974,Astrophys. J. Letters,194, L47.Google Scholar
  5. Angel, J. R. P., Borra, E. F. and Landstreet, J. D. 1981,Astrophys. J. Suppl.,45, 457.Google Scholar
  6. Angel, J. R. P. and Landstreet, J. D. 1970a,Astrophys. J. Letters,160, L147.Google Scholar
  7. Angel, J. R. P. and Landstreet, J. D. 1970b,Astrophys. J. Letters,162, L61.Google Scholar
  8. Antiochos, S. K., Haisch, B. M. and Stern, R. A. 1986,Astrophys. J. Letters,307, L55.Google Scholar
  9. Babcock, H. W. 1947,Astrophys. J.,105, 105.Google Scholar
  10. Babcock, H. W. 1948,Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific,60, 368.Google Scholar
  11. Babcock, H. W. 1951,Astrophys. J.,114, 1.Google Scholar
  12. Babcock, H. W. 1958,Astrophys. J. Suppl,3, 141.Google Scholar
  13. Babcock, H. W. 1960,Astrophys. J.,132, 521.Google Scholar
  14. Babcock, H. W. and Babcock, H. D. 1952,Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific,64, 282.Google Scholar
  15. Babel, J. 1992,Astron. Astrophys., in press.Google Scholar
  16. Babel, J. and Michaud, G. 1991a,Astrophys. J.,366, 560.Google Scholar
  17. Babel, J. and Michaud, G. 1991b,Astron. Astrophys.,241, 493.Google Scholar
  18. Babel, J. and Michaud, G. 1991c,Astron. Astrophys.,248, 155.Google Scholar
  19. Baliunas, S. L. et al. 1983,Astrophys. J.,275, 752.Google Scholar
  20. Baliunas, S. L. et al. 1985,Astrophys. J.,294, 310.Google Scholar
  21. Baliunas, S. L. and Vaughan, A. H. 1985,Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys.,23, 379.Google Scholar
  22. Barker, P. K., Brown, D. N., Bolton, C. T. and Landstreet, J. D. 1982, inAdvances in Ultraviolet Astronomy: Four Years of IUE Research, ed. Y Kondo, J. M. Mead, and R. D. Chapman, NASA CP-2238, p.589.Google Scholar
  23. Basri, G. S. and Marcy, G. W. 1988,Astrophys. J.,330, 274.Google Scholar
  24. Basri, G. S. and Marcy, G. W. 1991, inThe Sun and Cool Stars: activity, magnetism, dynamos, ed. I. Tuominen, D. Moss and G. Ruediger, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 401.Google Scholar
  25. Basri, G. S., Marcy, G. W. and Valenti, J. A. 1990,Astrophys. J.,360, 650.Google Scholar
  26. Beckman, J. E., Garcia Lopez, R. J., Rebolo, R. and Crivellari, L. 1991, inThe Sun and Cool Stars: Activity, magnetism, dynamos, ed. I. Tuominen, D. Moss and G. Ruediger, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 463.Google Scholar
  27. Berriman, G. 1988, inPolarized Radiation of Circumstellar Origin, ed. G. V. Coyne et al, Vatican, Vatican Press, p. 281.Google Scholar
  28. Blackett, P. M. S. 1947,Nature,159, 658.Google Scholar
  29. Bohlender, D. A. 1989,Astrophys. J.,346, 459.Google Scholar
  30. Bohlender, D. A., Brown, D. N., Landstreet, J. D. and Thompson, I. B. 1987,Astrophys. J.,323, 325.Google Scholar
  31. Bohlender, D. A. and Landstreet, J. D. 1990a,Astrophys. J. Letters,358, L25.Google Scholar
  32. Bohlender, D. A. and Landstreet, J. D. 1990b,Astrophys. J.,358, 274.Google Scholar
  33. Bohlender, D. A. and Landstreet, J. D. 1990c,Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.,247, 606.Google Scholar
  34. Borra, E. F., Edwards, G. and Mayor, M. 1984,Astrophys. J.,284, 211.Google Scholar
  35. Borra, E. F. and Landstreet, J. D. 1977,Astrophys. J.,212, 141.Google Scholar
  36. Borra, E. F. and Landstreet, J. D. 1978,Astrophys. J.,222, 226.Google Scholar
  37. Borra, E. F. and Landstreet, J. D. 1979,Astrophys. J.,228, 809.Google Scholar
  38. Borra, E. F. and Landstreet, J. D. 1980,Astrophys. J. Suppl.,42, 421.Google Scholar
  39. Borra, E. F., Landstreet, J. D. and Mestel, L. 1982,Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys.,20, 191.Google Scholar
  40. Borra, E. F., Landstreet, J. D. and Thompson, I. B. 1983,Astrophys. J. Suppl.,53, 151.Google Scholar
  41. Borra, E. F. and Vaughan, A. H. 1976,Astrophys. J. Letters,210, L145.Google Scholar
  42. Borra, E. F. and Vaughan, A. H. 1977,Astrophys. J.,220, 924.Google Scholar
  43. Brown, D. N. and Landstreet, J. D. 1981,Astrophys. J.,246, 899.Google Scholar
  44. Brandenburg, A. and Tuominen, I. 1991, inThe Sun and Cool Stars: activity, magnetism, dynamos, ed. I. Tuominen, D. Moss and G. Ruediger, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 223.Google Scholar
  45. Bues, I. 1991, inWhite Dwarfs, ed G. Vauclair and E. Sion, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 285.Google Scholar
  46. Bues, I and Pragal, M. 1987, inWhite Dwarfs, ed G. Wegner, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 329.Google Scholar
  47. Catalano, F. A. and Renson, P. 1984,Astron. Astrophys. Suppl.,55, 371.Google Scholar
  48. Catalano, F. A. and Renson, P. 1988,Astron. Astrophys. Suppl.,72, 1.Google Scholar
  49. Catalano, F. A., Renson, P., and Leone, F. 1991,Astron. Astrophys. Suppl.,87, 59.Google Scholar
  50. Charbonneau, P. and Michaud, G. 1988,Astrophys. J.,327, 809.Google Scholar
  51. Charbonnel, C., Vauclair, S. and Zahn, J.-P. 1992,Astron. Astrophys.,255, 191Google Scholar
  52. Condon, E. U. and Shortley, G. H. 1951,The Theory of Atomic Spectra, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Conti, P. 1969,Astrophys. J.,156, 661.Google Scholar
  54. Cowling, T. G. 1945,Mon. Not R. Astron. Soc.,105, 166.Google Scholar
  55. Cowling, T. G. 1976,Magnetohydrodynamics, Bristol, Adam Hilger.Google Scholar
  56. Deridder, G., van Rensbergen, W. and Hensberge, H. 1979,Astron. Astrophys.,77, 286.Google Scholar
  57. Deutsch, A. J. 1956,Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific,68, 92.Google Scholar
  58. Deutsch, A. J. 1958, inElectromagnetic Phenomena in Cosmic Physics, ed. B. Lehnert, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, p. 209.Google Scholar
  59. Didelon, P. 1983,Astron. Astrophys. Suppl,53, 119.Google Scholar
  60. Donati, J.-F., Semel, M., Rees, D. E., Taylor, K. and Robinson, R. D. 1990,Astron. Astrophys.,232, L1.Google Scholar
  61. Donati, J.-F., Semel, M. and Rees, D. E. 1992a, submitted toAstron. Astrophys. Google Scholar
  62. Donati, J.-F. et al 1992b, submitted toAstron. Astrophys. Google Scholar
  63. Drake, S.A., Abbott, D.C., Bastien, T.S., Bieging, J.H., Churchwell, E., Dulk, G. and Linsky, J.L. 1987,Astrophys. J.,322, 902Google Scholar
  64. Foltz, C. B., Latter, W. B., Hewett, P. C., Weymann, R. J., Morris, S. L. and Andersson, S. F. 1989,Astron. J.,98, 665.Google Scholar
  65. Fontaine, G. and Wesemael, F. 1991, inEvolution of Stars: the Photospheric Abundance Connection, ed. G. Michaud and A. Tutukov, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 421.Google Scholar
  66. Fleming, T. A., Gioa, I. and Maccacaro, T. 1989,Astrophys. J.,340, 1011.Google Scholar
  67. Garstang, R. H. 1977,Rep. Progr. Phys.,40, pt. 1, 105.Google Scholar
  68. Garstang, R. H. 1982,J. de Phys.,43, C2, 19.Google Scholar
  69. Gold, T. 1968,Nature,218, 731.Google Scholar
  70. Gray, D. F. 1984,Astrophys. J.,277, 640.Google Scholar
  71. Greenstein, J. L. 1986,Astrophys. J.,304, 334.Google Scholar
  72. Greenstein, J. L. and McCarthy, J. K. 1985,Astrophys. J.,289, 732.Google Scholar
  73. Groote, D. and Hunger, K. 1976,Astron. Astrophys.,52, 303.Google Scholar
  74. Grossmann-Doerth, U. and Solanki, S. K. 1990,Astron. Astrophys.,238, 279.Google Scholar
  75. Hale, G. E. 1908,Astrophys. J.,28, 315.Google Scholar
  76. Hall, D. S. 1991, inThe Sun and Cool Stars: activity, magnetism, dynamos, ed. I. Tuominen, D. Moss and G. Ruediger, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 353.Google Scholar
  77. Hatzes, A. P. 1988, inThe Impact of Very High SIN Spectroscopy on Stellar Physics, ed. G. Cayrel de Strobel and M. Spite, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 199.Google Scholar
  78. Hatzes, A. P., Penrod, G. D. and Vogt, S. S. 1989,Astrophys. J.,341, 456.Google Scholar
  79. Henry, R. J. W. and O'Connell, R. F. 1985,Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific,97, 333.Google Scholar
  80. Hensberge, H., van Rensbergen, W., Gossens, M. and Deridder, G. 1979,Astron. Astrophys.,75, 83Google Scholar
  81. Hewish, A, Bell, S. J., Pilkington, J. D. H., Scott, P. F. and Collins, R. A. 1967,Nature,217, 709.Google Scholar
  82. Hunger, K. 1986, inUpper Main Sequence Stars with Anomalous Abundances, ed. C. R. Cowley, M. M. Dworetsky, and C. Megessier, Dordrecht, Reidel, p. 257.Google Scholar
  83. Jordan, C., Ayres, T. R., Brown, A., Linsky, J. L. and Simon, T. 1987,Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.,225, 903.Google Scholar
  84. Jordan, S. 1989, inWhite Dwarfs, ed. G. Wegner, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 333.Google Scholar
  85. Kawaler, S. D. and Hansen, C. J. 1989, inWhite Dwarfs, ed. G. Wegner, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 97.Google Scholar
  86. Kemp, J. C. 1970,Astrophys. J.,162, 169.Google Scholar
  87. Kemp, J. C., Swedlund, J. B., Landstreet, J. D. and Angel, J. R. P. 1970,Astrophys. J. Letters,161, L77.Google Scholar
  88. Kemp, J. C. and Wolstencroft, R. A. 1974,Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.,166, 1.Google Scholar
  89. Khokhlova, V. L. 1985,Sov. Sci. Rev. E, Astrophys. Space Phys.,4, 99.Google Scholar
  90. Khokhlova, V. L., Rice, J. B. and Wehlau, W. H. 1986,Astrophys. J.,307, 786.Google Scholar
  91. Kurtz, D. W. 1990,Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys.,28, 607.Google Scholar
  92. Kurtz, D. W. and Wegner, G. 1979,Astrophys. J.,232, 510.Google Scholar
  93. Landstreet, J. D. 1969,Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific,81, 896.Google Scholar
  94. Landstreet, J. D. 1970,Astrophys. J.,159, 1001.Google Scholar
  95. Landstreet, J. D. 1980,Astron. J.,85, 611.Google Scholar
  96. Landstreet, J. D. 1982,Astrophys. J.,258, 639.Google Scholar
  97. Landstreet, J. D. 1987,Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.,225, 437.Google Scholar
  98. Landstreet, J. D. 1988,Astrophys. J.,326, 967.Google Scholar
  99. Landstreet, J. D. 1990,Astrophys. J. Letters,352, L5.Google Scholar
  100. Landstreet, J. D. 1991, inThe Sun and Cool Stars: activity, magnetism, dynamos, ed. I. Tuominen, D. Moss and G. Ruediger, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 342.Google Scholar
  101. Landstreet, J. D., Barker, P. K., Bohlender, D. A. and Jewison, M. S. 1989,Astrophys. J.,344, 876.Google Scholar
  102. Landstreet, J. D. and Borra, E. F. 1976, inPhysics of Ap Stars, ed. W. W. Weiss, H. Jenkner, and H. J. Wood, Vienna, Universitaetssternwarte Wien, p. 449.Google Scholar
  103. Landstreet, J. D. and Borra, E. F. 1978,Astrophys. J. Letters,224, L5.Google Scholar
  104. Latter, W. B., Schmidt, G. D. and Green, R. F. 1987,Astrophys. J.,320, 308.Google Scholar
  105. Leroy, J.-L. 1962,Ann. Astrophys.,25, 127.Google Scholar
  106. Leroy, J.-L., Landi Degl'Innocenti, E. and Landolfi, M. 1992, inProceedings of Paris Workshop on Determination of Stellar and Solar Magnetic Fields, ed. N. Mein, H. Frisch and M. Faurobert-Scholl, in press.Google Scholar
  107. Liebert, J., Schmidt, G. D., Green, R. F., Stockman, H. S. and McGraw, J. T. 1983,Astrophys. J.,264, 262.Google Scholar
  108. Livingston, W. 1991, inSolar Polarimetry, ed. L. J. November, Sunspot, National Solar Observatory, p. 356.Google Scholar
  109. Maggio, A. et al 1990,Astrophys. J.,348, 253.Google Scholar
  110. Marcy, G. W. 1982,Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific,94, 989.Google Scholar
  111. Marcy, G. W. 1984,Astrophys. J.,276, 286.Google Scholar
  112. Marcy, G. W. and Basri, G. S. 1989,Astrophys. J.,345, 480.Google Scholar
  113. Martin, B. and Wickramasinghe, D. T. 1986,Astrophys. J.,301, 177.Google Scholar
  114. Mathys, G. 1989,Fund. Cos. Phys.,13, 143.Google Scholar
  115. Mathys, G. 1990,Ast. Astrophys. 232, 151.Google Scholar
  116. Mathys, G. 1991,Astron. Astrophys. Suppl.,89, 121.Google Scholar
  117. Mathys, G. and Lanz, T. 1990,Astron. Astrophys.,230, L21.Google Scholar
  118. Mathys, G. and Lanz, T. 1992,Astron. Astrophys.,256, 169.Google Scholar
  119. Mathys, G. and Manfroid, J. 1985,Astron. Astrophys. Suppl.,60, 17.Google Scholar
  120. Mathys, G. and Solanki, S. K. 1989,Astron. Astrophys.,208, 189.Google Scholar
  121. Megessier, C. 1984,Astron. Astrophys.,138, 267.Google Scholar
  122. Mestel, L. 1965, inStellar Structure, ed. G. P. Kuiper and B. M. Middlehurst, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, p. 445.Google Scholar
  123. Mestel, L., Wittmann, J., Wood, W. P. and Wright, G. A. E. 1981,Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.,195, 929.Google Scholar
  124. Michaud, G. 1970,Astrophys. J. 160, 641.Google Scholar
  125. Michaud, G. 1991, inEvolution of Stars: the Photospheric Abundance Connection, ed. G. Michaud and A. Tutukov, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 111.Google Scholar
  126. Michaud, G. and Charland, Y. 1986,Astrophys. J.,311, 326.Google Scholar
  127. Michaud, G., Megessier C. and Charland, Y. 1981,Astron. Astrophys.,103, 244.Google Scholar
  128. Molnar, M. R. 1973,Astrophys. J.,179, 527.Google Scholar
  129. Molnar, M. R. and Wu, C.-C. 1978,Astron. Astrophys.,63, 335.Google Scholar
  130. Moss, D. 1989,Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.,236, 629.Google Scholar
  131. Moss, D. 1990a,Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.,243, 537.Google Scholar
  132. Moss, D. 1990b,Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.,244, 272.Google Scholar
  133. Nakajima, R. 1985,Astrophys. Space Sci.,116, 285.Google Scholar
  134. Pacini, F. 1967,Nature,216, 567.Google Scholar
  135. Pallavicini, R., Golub, L., Rosner, R., Vaiana, G. S., Ayres, T. and Linsky, J. L. 1981,Astrophys. J.,248, 279.Google Scholar
  136. Pallavicini, R. 1989,Astron. Astrophys. Rev.,1, 177.Google Scholar
  137. Peterson, D. M. 1970,Astrophys. J., 161, 685.Google Scholar
  138. Piskunov, N. E. 1991, inThe Sun and Cool Stars: activity, magnetism, dynamos, ed. I. Tuominen, D. Moss and G. Ruediger, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 309.Google Scholar
  139. Priest, E. R. 1982,Solar Magnetohydrodynamics, Dordrecht, D. Reidel Publishing Co..Google Scholar
  140. Preston, G. W. 1967,Astrophys. J.,150, 547.Google Scholar
  141. Preston, G. W. 1970a,Astrophys. J. Letters,160, L143.Google Scholar
  142. Preston, G. W. 1970b,Astrophys. J.,160, 1059.Google Scholar
  143. Preston, G. W. 1971a,Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific,83, 571.Google Scholar
  144. Preston, G. W. 1971b,Astrophys. J.,164, 309.Google Scholar
  145. Preston, G. W. 1972,Astrophys. J.,175, 465.Google Scholar
  146. Preston, G. W. 1974,Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys.,12, 257.Google Scholar
  147. Rees, D. E. 1987, inNumerical Radiative Transfer, ed. W. Kalkofen, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, p. 213.Google Scholar
  148. Renson, P. 1984,Astron. Astrophys.,139, 131.Google Scholar
  149. Rice, J. B. and Wehlau, W. H. 1991,Astron. Astrophys.,246, 195.Google Scholar
  150. Robinson, R. D. 1980,Astrophys. J.,239, 961.Google Scholar
  151. Robinson, R. D., Worden, S. P. and Harvey, J. W. 1980,Astrophys. J. Letters,236, L155.Google Scholar
  152. Rosner, R., An, C.-H., Musielak, Z. E., Moore, R. L. and Suess, S. E. 1991,Astrophys. J. Letters,372, L91.Google Scholar
  153. Ruiz, M. T. and Maza, J. 1989, inWhite Dwarfs, ed. G. Wegner, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 126.Google Scholar
  154. Ryabchikova, T. A. 1991, inEvolution of Stars: the Photospheric Abundance Connection, ed. G. Michaud and A. Tutukov, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 149.Google Scholar
  155. Saar, S. H. 1988,Astrophys. J.,324, 441.Google Scholar
  156. Saar, S. H. 1990, inThe Solar Photosphere: Structure, Convection, Magnetic Fields, ed. J. O. Stenfio, Dordrecht, Kluwer Publ. Co., p. 427.Google Scholar
  157. Saar, S. H. 1991, inThe Sun and Cool Stars: activity, magnetism, dynamos, ed. I. Tuominen, D. Moss and G. Ruediger, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 387.Google Scholar
  158. Saar, S. H., Golub, L., Bopp, B. W., Herbst, W. and Huovelin, J. 1990, inEvolution in Astrophysics: IUE Astronomy in the Era of New Space Missions, ed. E. Rolfe, ESA SP-310, p. 431.Google Scholar
  159. Saar, S. H., Huovelin, J., Giampapa, M. S., Linsky, J. L. and Jordan, C. 1988, inActivity in Cool Star Envelopes, eds. O. Havnes et al, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 45.Google Scholar
  160. Saar, S. H. and Linsky, J. L. 1985,Astrophys. J. Letters,299, L47.Google Scholar
  161. Saar, S. H., Linsky, J. L. and Beckers, J. M. 1986,Astrophys. J.,302, 777.Google Scholar
  162. Saar, S. H. and Schrijver, C. J. 1987, inCool Stars, Stellar Systems, and the Sun, ed. J. Linsky and R. E. Stencel, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 38.Google Scholar
  163. Saffer, R. A., Liebert, L, Wagner, R. M., Sion, E. M. and Starrfield, S. G. 1989,Astron. J.,98, 668.Google Scholar
  164. Schmidt, G. D. 1987, inThe Second Conference on Faint Blue Stars, ed A. G. D. Philip, D. S. Hayes, and J. W. Liebert, Schenectady, L. Davis Press, p. 377.Google Scholar
  165. Schmidt, G. D., Latter, W. B. and Foltz, C. B. 1990,Astrophys. J.,350, 758.Google Scholar
  166. Schmidt, G. D. and Norsworthy, J. E. 1991,Astrophys. J.,366, 270.Google Scholar
  167. Schwarzschild, M. 1950,Astrophys. J.,112, 222.Google Scholar
  168. Semel, M. 1989,Astron. Astrophys.,225, 456.Google Scholar
  169. Shore, S. N. 1987,Astron. J.,94, 731.Google Scholar
  170. Shore, S. N. and Brown, D. N. 1990,Astrophys. J.,365, 665.Google Scholar
  171. Shore, S. N., Brown, D. N. and Sonnebern, G. 1987,Astron. J.,94, 737.Google Scholar
  172. Shore, S. N., Brown, D. N., Sonneborn, G., Landstreet, J. D., and Bohlender, D. A. 1990,Astrophys. J.,348, 242.Google Scholar
  173. Srinivasan, G. 1989,Astron. Astrophys. Rev.,1, 209.Google Scholar
  174. Stenfio, J. O. 1971, inSolar Magnetic Fields, ed. R. Howard, Dordrecht, Reidel, p. 101.Google Scholar
  175. Stenflo, J. O. 1973,Solar Physics,32, 41.Google Scholar
  176. Stenflo, J. O. 1989,Astron. Astrophys. Rev.,1, 3.Google Scholar
  177. Stenflo, J. O. and Lindegren, L. 1977,Astron. Astrophys.,59, 367.Google Scholar
  178. Stepien, K. 1988,Astrophys. J.,335, 892.Google Scholar
  179. Stibbs, D. W. N. 1950,Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc.,110, 395.Google Scholar
  180. Strassmeier, K. G. and Hall, D. S. 1988,Astrophys. J. Suppl,67, 453.Google Scholar
  181. Strassmeier, K. S. et al 1991,Astron. Astrophys.,247, 130.Google Scholar
  182. Tassoul, J. L. and Tassoul, M. 1982,Astrophys. J. Suppl,49, 317.Google Scholar
  183. Thackeray, A. D. 1947,Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc.,107, 463.Google Scholar
  184. Thompson, I. B., Brown, D. N. and Landstreet, J. D. 1987,Astrophys. J. Suppl,64, 219.Google Scholar
  185. Thompson, I. B. and Landstreet, J. D. 1985,Astrophys. J. Letters,289, L9.Google Scholar
  186. Unno, W. 1956,Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan,8, 108.Google Scholar
  187. Vauclair, S. 1975,Astron. Astrophys.,45, 233.Google Scholar
  188. Vauclair, S. 1983, inAstrophysical Processes in Upper Main Sequence Stars, ed. B. Hauck and A. Maeder, Sauverny, Geneva Observatory, p. 167.Google Scholar
  189. Vauclair, S., Dolez, N. and Gough, D. O. 1991,Astron. Astrophys.,252, 618.Google Scholar
  190. Vauclair, S., Hardorp, J. and Peterson, D. M. 1979,Astrophys. J.,227, 526.Google Scholar
  191. Vauclair, S. and Vauclair, G. 1982,Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys.,20, 37.Google Scholar
  192. Vaughan, A. H., Preston, G. W. and Wilson, O. C. 1978,Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific,90, 267.Google Scholar
  193. Vogt, S. S. 1988, inThe Impact of Very High S/N Spectroscopy on Stellar Physics, ed G. Cayrel de Strobel and M. Spite, Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, p. 253.Google Scholar
  194. Vogt, S. S. and Hatzes, A. P. 1991, inThe Sun and Cool Stars: activity, magnetism, dynamos, ed. I. Tuominen, D. Moss and G. Ruediger, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 297.Google Scholar
  195. Wegner, G., Boley, F. I. and Swanson, S. R. 1987, inThe Second Conference on Faint Blue Stars, ed. A. G. D. Philip, D. S. Hayes and J. W. Liebert, Schenectady, L. Davis Press, p. 501.Google Scholar
  196. Wendell, C. E., Van Horn, H. M. and Sargent, D. 1987,Astrophys. J.,309, 218.Google Scholar
  197. West, S. C. 1989,Astrophys. J.,345, 511.Google Scholar
  198. Whitney, B. A. 1991a,Astrophys. J. Suppl.,75, 1293.Google Scholar
  199. Whitney, B. A. 1991b,Astrophys. J.,369, 451.Google Scholar
  200. Wickramasinghe, D. T. 1987, inThe Second Conference on Faint Blue Stars, ed A. G. D. Philip, D. S. Hayes and J. W. Liebert, Schenectady, L. Davis Press, p. 389.Google Scholar
  201. Wickramasinghe, D. T. 1988, inPolarized Radiation of Circumstellar Origin, ed. G. V. Coyne et al, Vatican, Vatican Press, p. 307.Google Scholar
  202. Wickramasinghe, D. T. 1989, inWhite Dwarfs, ed. G. Wegner, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 314.Google Scholar
  203. Wickramasinghe, D. T. and Cropper, M. 1988,Mon. Not. R. Astr. Soc.,235, 1451Google Scholar
  204. Wickramasinghe, D. T. and Martin, B. 1979,Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.,188, 165.Google Scholar
  205. Wilson, O. C. 1978,Astrophys. J.,226, 379.Google Scholar
  206. Winget, D. E. et al 1987,Astrophys. J. Letters,315, L77.Google Scholar
  207. Wolff, S. C. 1983,The A-Type Stars: Problems and Perspectives, Washington D. C., NASA SP-463.Google Scholar
  208. Wolff, R. J. and Wolff, S. C. 1976,Astrophys. J.,203, 171.Google Scholar
  209. Wolff, S. C. and Morrison, N. D. 1974,Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific,86, 935.Google Scholar
  210. Zeilik, M. 1991, inThe Sun and Cool Stars: activity, magnetism, dynamos, ed. I. Tuominen, D. Moss and G. Ruediger, Berlin, Springer-Verlag, p. 370.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. D. Landstreet
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of AstronomyUniversity of Western OntarioLondonCanada
  2. 2.Observatoire Midi-PyrénéesToulouseFrance

Personalised recommendations