The Astronomy and Astrophysics Review

, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 1–33 | Cite as

Abundances in the interstellar medium

  • T. L. Wilson
  • F. Matteucci


Recent developments in the theory of element production and the chemical evolution of the galaxy are presented. Following this, observational data and their interpretation are given. A case by case analysis of results for D, He, Li and CNO isotope data in the disk and center of our galaxy is presented; previous results for element gradients are also summarized.

The primordial abundances of D and He cannot be directly obtained from observations; corrections for stellar processing are discussed. From these data and the Li abundances, it appears that the abundance of the light elements is consistent with the standard big bang. In agreement with previous results, the range ofη, the baryon to photon ratio, is 5–8 10−10. If the amount of non-baryonic matter is small, these results indicate an open universe, in the standard big bang model.

New data show a gradient in the (12C/13C) and (16O/18O) ratios with galactocentric distance, DGC. The presence of a gradient in the (14N/15N) ratio is less clear and there is no measurable gradient in the (32S/34S) ratio. In the interstellar medium near the sun, the carbon isotope ratio is −20 percent lower than the solar system ratio. This indicates that there has been only a moderate amount of enrichment of the nearby interstellar medium since the formation of the solar system. These results and previously determined galactic element gradients are interpreted in the framework of chemical evolution models. Delayed recycling of nucleosynthesis products is essential for the correct interpretation of the results. Comparisons of data with galactic evolution models are discussed.

Key words

Isotopes-Galaxy Evolution of-Interstellar Medium abundances 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anders, E., Ebihara, M. 1982,Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 43, 2363Google Scholar
  2. Anders, E., Grevesse, N. 1989,Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 53, 197Google Scholar
  3. Audouze, J., Lequeux, J., Vigroux, L. 1975 A&A43, 71Google Scholar
  4. Audouze, J., Tinsley, B.M. 1976 Ann Rev A&A14, 43Google Scholar
  5. Audouze, J., Lequeux, J., Rocca-Volmerange, B.,Vigroux, L. 1977 inCNO Isotopes in Astrophysics, ed. J.Audouze, Reidel Dordrecht, p 155Google Scholar
  6. Audouze, J., Boulade, O., Malinie, G., Poilane, Y. 1983 A&A127, 164Google Scholar
  7. Audouze, J. 1985, inProduction and Distribution of CNO Elements, ed. I.J. Danziger et al. E.S.O. Publ., Garching, p. 373Google Scholar
  8. Audouze, J. 1987, inNucleosynthesis and Chemical Evolution Saas Fee Course, ed. B. Hauck et al. Geneva Observatory, Geneva p 429Google Scholar
  9. Baldwin, J., et al. 1991 Ap. J.374, 580Google Scholar
  10. Ballmoos, P., Diehl, R., Schonfelder, V. 1987 Ap. J.318, 654Google Scholar
  11. Bally, J., Langer, W.D. 1982 Ap. J.255, 143Google Scholar
  12. Bally, J., Stark, A. A., Wilson, R.W., Henkel, C. 1988 Ap. J.324, 223Google Scholar
  13. Bania, T.M., Rood, R.T., Wilson, T.L., 1987 Ap. J.323, 30Google Scholar
  14. Becker, S.A., Iben, IJr. 1979 Ap. J.232, 831Google Scholar
  15. Bergh, S. van den, Me Clure, R.D., Evans, R. 1987 Ap. J.323, 44Google Scholar
  16. Blake, G.A., Sutton, E.C., Masson, C.R., Phillips, T.G., Herbst, E., Plummer, G.M., DeLucia, F.C. 1984 Ap. J.286, 586Google Scholar
  17. Boesgaard, A.M., Steigman, G. 1985 Ann Rev A&A23, 319Google Scholar
  18. Burbidge, G.R., Burbidge, E.M., Fowler, W.A., Hoyle, F. 1958 Rev. Mod. Phys.29, 547 (BBFH)Google Scholar
  19. Buzzoni, A., Fusi-Pecci, F., Buonanno, R., Corsi, C.E. A&A128, 94Google Scholar
  20. Cameron, A.G.W. 1958 Publ. Astron. Soc. Pacific69, 201Google Scholar
  21. Cameron, A.G.W., Fowler, W.A. 1971 Ap. J.164, 111Google Scholar
  22. Capaccioli, M., Ortolani, S., Piotto, G. A&A244, 298Google Scholar
  23. Chieffi, A., Straniero, O.Astrophys. J. Suppl. 71, 47Google Scholar
  24. Chiosi, C. 1980 A&A83, 206Google Scholar
  25. Chiosi, C., Maeder, A., 1986 Ann Rev A&A24, 329Google Scholar
  26. Chiosi, C.1987, inNucleosynthesis and Chemical evolution Saas Fee Course, ed. B. Hauck et al., Geneva Observatory Publ., p.199Google Scholar
  27. Chu, Y.-H., Watson, W.D. 1983 Ap. J.267, 151Google Scholar
  28. Ciotti, L., D'Ercole, A., Pellegrini, S., Renzini, A. 1991 Ap. J.376, 380Google Scholar
  29. Clarke, C.J. 1989 M.N.R.A.S.238, 283Google Scholar
  30. Crane, P., Lambert, D.L., Hegyi, D.J. 1991 Ap. J.378, 181Google Scholar
  31. D'Antona, F., Mazzitelli, I. 1985 Ap. J.296, 502Google Scholar
  32. D'Antona, F., Matteucci, F. 1991 A&A248, 62Google Scholar
  33. Danziger, I.J., Lucy, L.B., Bouchet, P., Gouiffes, C. 1990 inSupernovae, Santa Cruz Workshop, ed. S.E. Woosley, Springer, Heidelberg, p. 69Google Scholar
  34. David, L.P., Forman, W., Jones, C. 1990 Ap. J.359, 29Google Scholar
  35. Dame, T. et al. 1987 Ap. J.322, 706Google Scholar
  36. Dearborn, D., Tinsley, B.M., Schramm, D.N. 1978 Ap. J.223, 557Google Scholar
  37. De Boer, K.S., Savage, B.D. 1983 Ap. J.265, 210Google Scholar
  38. De Boer, K.S., Savage, B.D. 1984 A&A136, L7Google Scholar
  39. Dickel, H.R., Goss, W.M. 1990 Ap. J.351, 189Google Scholar
  40. Dickman, R., Snell, R.L., Young, J.S., eds. 1988Molecular Clouds in the Milky Way and External Galaxies, Lecture Notes in Physics 315, Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  41. Dishoeck, E.F. van, Black, J.H. 1987 inPhysical Processes in Interstellar Clouds, NATO ASI Series210, ed. G.E. Morfill, M. Scholer, Reidel, Dordrecht, p. 241Google Scholar
  42. Evans, I.N. 1987 Ap. J.309, 544Google Scholar
  43. Fich, M., Silkey, M. 1991 Ap. J.366, 107Google Scholar
  44. Frerking, M.A., Wilson, R.W., Linke, R.A., Wannier, P.G. 1980 Ap. J.240, 65Google Scholar
  45. Gallino, R., Busso, M., Picchio, G., Raiteri, C.M. 1988 Ap. J.334, L45Google Scholar
  46. Gardner, F.F., Whiteoak, J.B. 1979 M.N.R.A.S.188, 331Google Scholar
  47. Gardner, F.F., Whiteoak, J.B. 1981 M.N.R.A.S.194, 37pGoogle Scholar
  48. Geiss, J. 1989Rev. Mod. Astron. 1, Springer, Heidelberg, p. 1Google Scholar
  49. Genzel, R., Stutzki, J. 1989 Ann Rev A&A27, 41Google Scholar
  50. Glassgold, A.E., Huggins, P.J., Langer, W.D. 1985 Ap. J.290, 615Google Scholar
  51. Goldsmith, P.F. 1988 inMolecular Clouds in the Milky Way and External Galaxies, Lecture Notes in Physics 315, Ed. Dickman, Snell, Young, Springer, Heidelberg, p. 1Google Scholar
  52. Greggio, L., Renzini, A. 1983 inThe First stellar Generations, Mem. Soc. Astron. Italia 54, 311Google Scholar
  53. Gry, C., Laurent, C., Vidal-Madjar, A., 1983 A&A124, 99Google Scholar
  54. Güsten, R., Mezger, P.G. 1983 Vistas in Astronomy26, 169 (GM)Google Scholar
  55. Güsten, R., Ungerechts, H., 1985 A&A145, 241Google Scholar
  56. Güsten, R., Henkel, C., Batrla, W., 1985 A&A149, 195Google Scholar
  57. Hawkins, I., Jura, M. 1987 Ap. J.317, 926Google Scholar
  58. Heiles, C. 1991 in Proc. of conference onEvolution of interstellar matter and dynamics of galaxies, Prague, in pressGoogle Scholar
  59. Henkel, C., Walmsley, C.M., Wilson, T.L. 1980 Ap. J.82, 41Google Scholar
  60. Henkel, C., Wilson, T.L., Bieging, J.H., 1982 A&A109, 344Google Scholar
  61. Henkel, C., Wilson, T.L., Walmsley, C.M., Pauls, T.A., 1983 A&A127, 388Google Scholar
  62. Henkel, C., Güsten, R., Gardner, F.F. 1985 A&A143, 148Google Scholar
  63. Herbst, E., Klemperer, W. 1973 Ap. J.185, 505Google Scholar
  64. Hillebrandt, W. 1985 inProduction and Distribution of CNO Elements, ed. I.J. Danziger et al., ESO Publ., p.325Google Scholar
  65. Howard, W.M., Arnett, W.D., Clayton, D.D. 1971 Ap. J.165, 495Google Scholar
  66. Iben, I. Jr., Renzini, A. 1983Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 21, 271Google Scholar
  67. Janes, K.A., 1979 Ap. J. Suppl.39, 135Google Scholar
  68. Johansson, L.E.B. et al. 1985 Astron. Astrophys. Suppl.60, 135Google Scholar
  69. Kaldeich, B.H., ed. 1990From ground-based to space-borne sub mm astronomy, Proc of 29th Liege Int'l Astrophys. Coll., European Sapce Agency, Paris, SP 314Google Scholar
  70. Kahane, C., Cernicharo, J., Gomez-Gonzales, J., Guelin, M. 1992 A&A in pressGoogle Scholar
  71. Koester, D., Reimers, D. 1985 A&A153, 260Google Scholar
  72. Lacey, G., Fall, S.M. 1985 Ap. J.290, 154Google Scholar
  73. Lada, E.A., Bally, J., Stark, A.A. 1991 Ap. J.368, 432Google Scholar
  74. Larson, R.B. 1972Nature 236, 21Google Scholar
  75. Larson, R.B. 1976 M.N.R.A.S.176, 31Google Scholar
  76. Larson, R.B. 1986 M.N.R.A.S.218, 409Google Scholar
  77. Langer, W.D., Goldsmith, P.F., Carlson, E.R., Wilson, R.W., 1980 Ap. J.235, L39Google Scholar
  78. Langer, W.D., Graedel, I.E., Frerking, M.A., Armentrout, P.B., 1984 Ap. J.277, 581Google Scholar
  79. Langer, W.D., Penzias, A.A., 1990 Ap. J.357, 477Google Scholar
  80. Lee, T., Papanastassiou, D.A., Wasserburg, G.J. 1977 Ap. J.211, L107Google Scholar
  81. Lequeux, J., Peimbert, M., Rayo, E., Serrano, A., Torres-Peimbert, S. 1979 A&A80, 155Google Scholar
  82. Lester, D., Dinerstein, H.L., Werner, M.W., Watson, D.M., Genzel, R., Storey, J.W.V. 1987 Ap. J.320, pp 573Google Scholar
  83. Luck, R.E., Lambert, D.L. 1985 Ap. J.298, 782Google Scholar
  84. Lynden-Bell, D. 1975 Vistas in Astronomy19, 299Google Scholar
  85. Lynden-Bell, D. 1985 inNucleosynthesis and its Implications on Nuclear and Particle Physics, ed. J. Audouze and N. Mathieu, Reidel, Dordrecht, p. 207Google Scholar
  86. Maeder, A., Meynet, G. 1989 A&A210, 155 (MM)Google Scholar
  87. Maeder, A. 1992, A&A in pressGoogle Scholar
  88. Maloney, P, Black, J. 1988 Ap. J.325, 389Google Scholar
  89. Mangum, J.G., Rood, R.T., Wadiak, E.J., Wilson, T.L. 1988 Ap. J.334, 182Google Scholar
  90. Martin-Pintado, J., Wilson, T.L., Johnston, K.J., Henkel, C. 1985 Ap. J.299, 386Google Scholar
  91. Mathews, G.J., Alcock, C.R., Fuller, G.M. 1990 Ap. J.349, 449Google Scholar
  92. Mathis, J.S. 1985 Ap. J.291, 247Google Scholar
  93. Matteucci, F., Greggio, L. 1986 A&A154, 279Google Scholar
  94. Matteucci, F., Vettolani, G. 1988 A&A202, 21Google Scholar
  95. Matteucci, F., FranÇois, P. 1989 M.N.R.A.S.239, 885 (MF)Google Scholar
  96. Matteucci, F., Franco, J., FranÇois, P., Treyer, M.A. 1989Rev. Mex. Astron. Astrofis. 18, 145Google Scholar
  97. Matteucci, F., Brocato, E. 1990 Ap. J.365, 539Google Scholar
  98. Matteucci, F. 1991 inFrontiers of Stellar Evolution A.S.P. Conf. Ser. Vol. 20, ed. D.L. Lambert, p. 539Google Scholar
  99. Matteucci, F., D'Antona, F. 1991 A&A247, L37Google Scholar
  100. Mauersberger, R., Henkel, C., Wilson, T.L., Walmsley, C.M. 1986 A&A162, 199Google Scholar
  101. Mc Clure, R.D., VandenBergh, D.A., Smith, G.H., Fahlman, G.G., Richer, H.B., Hesser, J.E., Harris, W.E., Stetson, P.B., Bell, R.A. 1986 Ap. J.307, L49Google Scholar
  102. McCullough, P.R. 1992 Ap. J. (in press, May 1 issue)Google Scholar
  103. Menten, K.-M., Walmsley, C.M., Henkel, C., Wilson, T.L. 1988 A&A198, 253Google Scholar
  104. Mezger, P.G., Pankonin, V., Schmid-Burgk, J., Thum, C., Wink, J. 1979 A&A80, L3Google Scholar
  105. Miller, G., Scalo, J.M. 1978 Ap. J. Suppl.41, 513Google Scholar
  106. Mirabel, I.F. 1989 inStructure and Dynamics of the Interstellar Medium, ed. G. Tenorio-Tagle et al. Springer, Heidelberg, p 396Google Scholar
  107. Murthy et al. 1990 Ap. J.356, 223Google Scholar
  108. Nomoto, K., Thielemann, F.K., Yokoi, Y. 1984 Ap. J.286, 644Google Scholar
  109. Nomoto, K., Yamaoka, H., Shigeyama, T., Kumagai, S., Tsujimoto, T. 1992 inLes Houches Summmer School on Supernovae, ed. J. Audouze et al., Elsevier Sci. Publ., in pressGoogle Scholar
  110. Pagel, B.E.J., Edmunds, M.G. 1981 Ann Rev A&A19, 77Google Scholar
  111. Pagel, B.E.J., Simonson, E.A., Terlevich, R.J., Edmunds, M.G. 1992 M.N.R.A.S.255, 325Google Scholar
  112. Panagia, N. 1987 inHigh Energy Phenomena around Collapsed Stars, ed. F. Pacini, Reidel, Dordrecht p. 33Google Scholar
  113. Pasachoff, J.M., Vidal-Madjar, A. 1989Comments Astrophys.,14, 61Google Scholar
  114. Peimbert, M. 1985 inStar Forming Dwarf Galaxies ed. D. Kunth et al., Editions Frontières, p 403Google Scholar
  115. Peimbert, M. 1986 inProc. of IAU Symp 115, Star Forming Regions ed. M. Peimbert, J. Jugaku, Reidel, Dordrecht, p. 111Google Scholar
  116. Penzias, A.A. 1979 Science205, 549Google Scholar
  117. Penzias, A.A. 1980 Science208, 663Google Scholar
  118. Penzias, A.A. 1981a Ap. J.249, 513Google Scholar
  119. Penzias, A.A. 1981b Ap. J.249, 518Google Scholar
  120. Pottasch, S.R. 1984Planetary Nebulae Vol 107 Astrophys. and Space Lib., Reidel, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  121. Rana, N.C., Wilkinson, D.A. 1986 M.N.R.A.S.218, 497Google Scholar
  122. Rebolo, R. 1989 inXI European Regional Meeting (Cambridge University Press), in pressGoogle Scholar
  123. Rana, N.C. 1991 Ann Rev A&A29, 129Google Scholar
  124. Rebolo, R., Molaro, P., Beckman, J. 1988 A&A192, 192Google Scholar
  125. Renzini, A., Voli, M. 1981 A&A94, 175Google Scholar
  126. Rohlfs, C., Barnes C.A. 1990Ann. Rev. Nuclear Science,40, 45Google Scholar
  127. Rood, R.T., Steigman, G., Tinsley, B.M. 1976 Ap. J.207, L57Google Scholar
  128. Rood, R.T., Bania, T.M., Wilson, T.L. 1984 in Proc. of IAU Symp. 106,Observational Tests of Stellar Evolution Theory, ed.A Maeder, A. Renzini, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 567.Google Scholar
  129. Rood, R.T., Bania, T.M., Wilson, T.L. 1992 Nature355, 618Google Scholar
  130. Rubin, R.H. 1985 Ap. J. Suppl.57, 349Google Scholar
  131. Rubin, R. H., Simpson, J.P., Haas, M.R., Erickson, E.F. 1991 Ap. J.374, 564Google Scholar
  132. Rubio, M., Garay, G., Montani, J., Thaddeus, P. 1991 Ap. J.368, 173Google Scholar
  133. Sage, L.J., Mauersberger, R., Henkel, C. 1991 A&A249, 31Google Scholar
  134. Sanders, D.B., Clemens, D.P., Scoville, N.Z., Solomon, P.M. 1986 Ap. J. Suppl.60, 1Google Scholar
  135. Schmidt, M. 1959 Ap. J.129, 243Google Scholar
  136. Schüller, M. 1985 unpublished Diplom thesis, Bonn Univ.Google Scholar
  137. Shaver, P., McGee, R.X., Newton, L.M., Danks, A.C., Pottasch, S.R. 1983 M.N.R.A.S.204, 53Google Scholar
  138. Shields, G. 1990 Ann Rev A&A28, 525Google Scholar
  139. Shu, F.H., Adams, F.C., Lizano, S. 1987 Ann Rev A&A25, 23Google Scholar
  140. Smith, V., Lambert, D.L. 1989 Ap. J.345, L75Google Scholar
  141. Smith, V., Lambert, D.L. 1990 Ap. J.361, L69Google Scholar
  142. Smoot, G.F. et al. 1991 Ap. J.371, L1Google Scholar
  143. Snell, R.L., Scoville, N.Z., Sanders, D.B., Erickson, N.R. 1984 Ap. J.284, 176Google Scholar
  144. Solomon, P.M., Rivolo, A.R., 1987 inThe Galaxy, NATO ASI207 ed. G. Gilmore, B. Carswell, Reidel, Dordrecht, p. 105Google Scholar
  145. Spite, F., Spite, M. 1982a A&A115, 357Google Scholar
  146. Spite, F., Spite, M. 1982bNature 297, 483Google Scholar
  147. Spitzer, L., Jenkins, E.B. 1975 Ann Rev A&A13, 133Google Scholar
  148. Stacy, G.J., Townes, C.H., Poglitsch, A., Madden, S.C., Jackson, J.M., Hermann, F., Genzel, R., Geis, N. 1991 Ap. J.382, L37Google Scholar
  149. Stahl, O., Wilson, T.L., Henkel, C., Appenzeller, I., 1989, A&A221, 321Google Scholar
  150. Stahl, O., Wilson, T.L. 1992 A&A254, 327Google Scholar
  151. Starrfield, S., Truran, J.W., Sparks, W.M., Arnould, M. 1978 Ap. J.222, 600Google Scholar
  152. Talbot, R.J., Arnett, W.D. 1973 Ap. J.186, 69Google Scholar
  153. Talbot, R.J., Arnett, W.D. 1975 Ap. J.197, 551Google Scholar
  154. Thielemann, F.K. 1992, inLes Houches Summer School on Supernovae, ed. J. Audouze et al., Elsevier Science Publ., in pressGoogle Scholar
  155. Thielemann, F.K., Nomoto, K., Hashimoto, M. 1990 inChemical and Dynamical Evolution of Galaxies, ed. F. Ferrini et al., ETS Editrice, Pisa, p 380Google Scholar
  156. Tinsley, B.M. 1980 inFund. Cosmic Phys. 5, 287Google Scholar
  157. Tosi, M. 1982 Ap. J.254, 699Google Scholar
  158. Tosi, M. 1988a A&A197, 33Google Scholar
  159. Tosi, M. 1988b A&A197, 47Google Scholar
  160. Tosi, M., Diaz, A.I. 1990 M.N.R.A.S.246, 616Google Scholar
  161. Tosi, M., 1991, in Proc. of IAU Symp. 144,The Interstellar Disk-Halo Connection in Galaxies, ed. H. Bloemen, Kluwer, Dordrecht, p. 79Google Scholar
  162. Trimble, V. 1991 A&A Rev.3, 1Google Scholar
  163. Truran, J.W. 1972 inProceed. Conference on Red Giants, ed. H.R. Johnson et al., Indiana Univ. Press, p 394Google Scholar
  164. Truran, J.W. 1977 inCNO Isotopes in Astrophysics, ed. J. Audouze, Reidel, Dordrecht, p. 145Google Scholar
  165. Truran, J.W. 1985 inNucleosynthesis and its Implications on Nuclear and Particle Physics ed. J. Audouze and N. Mathieu, Reidel, Dordrecht, p. 87Google Scholar
  166. Twarog, B.A., Wheeler, J.C. 1982 Ap. J.261, 636Google Scholar
  167. Twarog, B.A., Wheeler, J.C. 1987 Ap. J.316, 513Google Scholar
  168. Vigroux, L., Audouze, J., Lequeux, J. 1976 A&A52, 1Google Scholar
  169. Vilchez, J.M., Pagel, B.E.J., Diaz, A.I., Terlevich, R., Edmunds, M.G. 1988 M.N.R.A.S.231, 257Google Scholar
  170. Wakker, B.P. 1991, in Proc. of IAU Symp. 144,The Interstellar Disk-Halo Connection in Galaxies, ed. H. Bloemen, Kluwer, Dordrecht, p. 27Google Scholar
  171. Waddington, C.J., ed., 1988 AIP Conference onAbundances of Matter, Minneapolis, Minn.Google Scholar
  172. Walmsley, C.M., Hermsen, W., Henkel, C., Mauersberger, R., Wilson, T.L. 1987 A&A172, 311Google Scholar
  173. Walmsley, C.M., Jacq, T. 1991 inAtoms, Ions, and Molecules, ed. A.D. Haschick, P.T.P. Ho, Astron.Soc Pacific, San Francisco, p. 305.Google Scholar
  174. Walter, R., Maeder, A. 1989 A&A218, 123Google Scholar
  175. Wannier, P.G., Penzias, A.A., Linke, R.A., Wilson, R.W. 1976 Ap. J.204, 26Google Scholar
  176. Wannier, P.G., Linke, R.A. 1978 Ap. J.226, 817Google Scholar
  177. Wannier, P.G. 1980 Ann Rev A&A18, 399Google Scholar
  178. Wannier, P.G., Linke, R.A., Penzias, A.A. 1981 Ap. J.247, 522Google Scholar
  179. Wannier, P.G., Penzias, A.A., Jenkins, E.B. 1982 Ap. J.254, 100Google Scholar
  180. Watson, D.M., Genzel, R., Townes, C.H., Storey, J.W.V. 1985 Ap. J.298, 316Google Scholar
  181. Watson, W.D. 1974 Ap. J.181, L129Google Scholar
  182. Watson, W.D., Anichich, V.G., Huntress, W.T., 1976 Ap. J.205, L165Google Scholar
  183. Weidemann, V. 1987 A&A188, 74Google Scholar
  184. Weigelt, G., Baier, G. 1985 A&A150, L18Google Scholar
  185. Weigelt, G., et al. 1991 Ap. J.378, L21Google Scholar
  186. Wiescher, M., Görres, J., Thielemann, F.K., Ritter, H. 1986 A&A160, 56Google Scholar
  187. Wilson, T.L., Walmsley, C.M. 1991 A&A Rev.1, 141Google Scholar
  188. Wink, J.E., Wilson, T.L., Bieging, J. 1983 A&A127, 219Google Scholar
  189. Woerden, H. van, Alien, R.J., Burton, W.B., eds., 1983 Proc. of IAU Symp. 106,The Milky Way Galaxy, Reidel, Dordrecht.Google Scholar
  190. Wollman, E.R. 1973 Ap. J.184, 773Google Scholar
  191. Woosley, S.E., Axelrod, T.S., Weaver, T.A. 1984 inStellar Nucleosynthesis, ed. C. Chiosi et al. Reidel, Dordrecht, p 263Google Scholar
  192. Woosley, S.E., Weaver, T.A. 1986 inProc of IAU Coll 89 ed. D. Mihalas et al., p 91Google Scholar
  193. Woosley, S.E. 1987 inNucleosynthesis and Chemical Evolution Saas Fee Course, ed. B. Hauck et al. Geneva Observatory, p 1Google Scholar
  194. Woosley, S.E. 1992 inLes Houches Summer School on Supernovae ed. J. Audouze et al. Elsevier Science Publ., in pressGoogle Scholar
  195. Wyse, R.F.G., Silk, J. 1987 Ap. J.313, L11Google Scholar
  196. Yang, J., Turner, M.S., Steigman, G., Schramm, D.N., Olive, K. 1984 Ap. J.281, 493Google Scholar
  197. York, D.G., Rogerson, J.B. 1976 Ap. J.203, 378Google Scholar
  198. Young, J., Scoville, N.Z. 1991 Ann Rev A&A29, 581Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. L. Wilson
    • 1
  • F. Matteucci
    • 2
  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institut für RadioastronomieBonn 1Germany
  2. 2.Max-Planck-Institut für AstrophysikGarchingGermany

Personalised recommendations