Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

, Volume 68, Issue 1, pp 43–49 | Cite as

Nutritional physiology of type isolates of currently accepted species ofExophiala andPhaeococcomyces

  • G. S. de Hoog
  • A. H. G. Gerrits van den Ende
  • J. M. J. Uijthof
  • W. A. Untereiner


Nutritional physiological and tolerance tests were performed for all type strains of species currently classified in the black yeast generaExophiala andPhaeococcomyces, including some additional type strains of taxa recently reidentified asExophiala species. Most describedExophiala species can be distinguished by physiological characters.Exophiala jeanselmei with its varieties, andE. castellanii should all be retained as separate taxa. The pairs of strainsMycotorula schawii/Exophiala dermatitidis, Hormodendrum negronii/Exophiala jeanselmei var.lecaniicorni andSporotrichum gougerotii/Torula bergeri were found to be conspecific. Phenetic analyses of physiological data support the identity ofPhaeococcomyces exophialae as a yeast-like synanamorph ofExophiala spinifera. The taxonomic positions of the generaNadsoniella, Phaeoannellomyces andWangiella are discussed. The generaExophiala andPhaeococcomyces are unrelated.

Key words

taxonomy physiology black yeasts Herpotrichiellaceae Capronia Exophiala Nadsoniella Phaeoannellomyces Phaeococcomyces Sarcinomyces Wangiella 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Barnett JA, Payne RW & Yarrow D (1990) Yeasts: characteristics and identification, 2nd ed. Cambridge Univ. Press, 1002 ppGoogle Scholar
  2. Bulanov PA & Malama AA (1965a) Charakteristika odnogo iz gribov rodaPullularia. Vesci Akad. Navuk Belaruss. SSR. 4: 116–117Google Scholar
  3. —— (1965b) Vliyanie polisakharida iz ‘chemikh drozhenyi’ na rost opukholi Ehrlicha. Doklad. Akad. Nauk Belarus. 9: 270–272Google Scholar
  4. Carmichael JW (1966) Cerebral mycetoma of trout due to aPhialophora-like fungus. Sabouraudia 5: 120–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Espinel-Ingroff A, McGinnis MR, Pincus DH, Goldson PR & Kerkering TM (1989) Evaluation of the API 20C yeast identification system for the differentiation of some dematiaceous fungi. J. Clin. Microbiol. 27: 2565–2569PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Goto S, Aono R, Sugiyama J & Horikoshi K (1981)Exophiala alcalophila, a new black, yeast-like hyphomycete with an accompanyingPhaeococcomyces alcalophilus morph, and its physiological characteristics. Trans. Mycol. Soc. Jap. 22: 429–439Google Scholar
  7. Haase, G, Sonntag L, Peer Y van de, Uijthof JMJ, Podbielski A & Melzer-Krick B (1995) Phylogenetic analysis of ten black yeast species using nuclear small subunit rRNA gene sequences. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 68: 19–33, this issuePubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hironaga M, Watanabe S, Nishimura K & Miyaji M (1981) Annellated conidiogenous cells inExophiala dermatitidis, agent of phaeohyphomycosis. Mycologia 73: 1181–1183Google Scholar
  9. Hoog GS de (1977)Rhinocladiella and allied genera. Stud. Mycol. 15: 1–140Google Scholar
  10. -- (1983) On the potentially pathogenic dematiaceous hyphomycetes. In: Howard DH (Ed) The Fungi Pathogenic for Humans and Animals B2 (pp 149–216)Google Scholar
  11. Hoog GS de & Gerrits van den Ende AHG (1992) Nutritional pattern and eco-physiology ofHortaea werneckii agent of human tinea nigra. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 62: 321–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Hoog GS de, Guého E, Masclaux F, Gerrits van den Ende AHG, Kwon-Chung KJ & McGinnis MR (1995) Nutritional physiology and taxonomy of human-pathogenicCladosporium (Xylohypha) species. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 32: 373–380Google Scholar
  13. Hoog GS de & Haase G (1993) Nutritional physiology and selective isolation ofExophiala dermatitidis. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 64: 17–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hoog GS de, Marvin-Sikkema FD, Lahpoor GA, Gottschall JC, Prins RA & Guého E (1994a) Ecology and physiology of the emerging opportunistic fungiPseudallescheria boydii andScedosporium prolificans. Mycoses 37: 71–78Google Scholar
  15. Hoog GS de, Matsumoto T, Masuda T & Uijthof JMJ (1994b)Exophiala jeanselmei var.lecanii-corni, an etiologic agent of human phaeohyphomycosis, with report of a case. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 32: 373–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hoog GS de, Takeo K, Yoshida S, Göttlich E, Nishimura K & Miyaji M (1994c) Pleoanamorphic life cycle ofExophiala (Wangiella) dermatitidis. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 65: 143–153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hoog GS de & Yurlova NA (1994) Conidiogenesis, nutritional physiology and taxonomy ofAureobasidium andHormonema. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 65: 41–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Issatchenko BL (1914) O rozovykh i chernykh proffach. Ann. Exped. Sci. Indust. Mourmansk pp 264–275Google Scholar
  19. —— (1934)Nadsoniella nigra Iss. Mykrobiol. Zh. 1: 75–82Google Scholar
  20. Iwatsu T, Udagawa S-I & Takase T (1991) A new species ofExophiala recovered from drinking water. Mycotaxon 41: 321–328Google Scholar
  21. Kane J & Summerbell RC (1987) Sodium chloride as an aid in identification ofPhaeoannellomyces werneckii and other medically important dematiaceous fungi. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25: 944–946PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Katz B & McGinnis MR (1980) A new species ofExophiala recovered from loblolly pine litter. Mycotaxon 11: 182–184Google Scholar
  23. Lyakh SP & Ruban EL (1970) Antarctic ‘black yeasts’Nadsoniella nigra var.hesuelica (characteristics and identification of strain 365). Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR 4: 581–592Google Scholar
  24. Maddison WP & Maddison DR (1992) MacClade Analysis of Phylogeny and Character Evolution, version 3, Sinauer, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  25. Masclaux F, Guého E, Hoog GS de & Christen R (1995) Phylogenetic relationships of human-pathogenicCladosporium (Xylohypha) species inferred from partial LS rRNA sequences. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. (in press)Google Scholar
  26. Matsumoto T, Padhye AA, Ajello L & McGinnis MR (1986)Sarcinomyces phaeomuriformis: a new dematiaceous hyphomycete. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 24: 395–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. McGinnis MR (1977)Wangiella, a new genus to accommodateHormiscium dermatitidis. Mycotaxon 5: 353–363Google Scholar
  28. McGinnis MR & Ajello L (1982) A note onSporotrichum gougerotii Matruchot 1910. Mycotaxon 16: 232–238Google Scholar
  29. McGinnis MR & Padhye AA (1977)Exophiala jeanselmei, a new combination forPhialophora jeanselmei. Mycotaxon 5: 341–352Google Scholar
  30. McGinnis MR, Schell WA & Carson J (1985)Phaeoannellomyces and the Phaeococcomycetaceae, new dematiaceous blastomycete taxa. Sabouraudia 23: 179–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Pedersen OA & Langvad F (1989)Exophiala psychrophila sp. nov., a pathogenic species of the black yeasts isolated from farmed Atlantic salmon. Mycol. Res. 92: 153–156Google Scholar
  32. Sneath PH & Sokal RR (1973) Numerical Taxonomy. Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  33. Steadham JE, Geis PA & Simmank JL (1986) Use of carbohydrate and nitrate assimilation in the identification of dematiaceous fungi. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 5: 71–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Swofford DL (1990) PAUP: phylogenetic analysis using parsimony, version 3.1.1. Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, IllinoisGoogle Scholar
  35. Uijthof JMJ & Hoog GS de (1995) PCR-ribotyping of type isolates of currently acceptedExophiala andPhaeococcomyces species. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 68: 35–42, this issueGoogle Scholar
  36. Uijthof JMJ, Belkum A van, Hoog GS de & Haase G (1995) A DNA hybridization probe specific to the human-pathogenic black yeastsExophiala dermatitidis. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. (in press)Google Scholar
  37. Walt JP van der & Yarrow D (1984) Methods for the isolation, maintenance, classification and identification of yeasts. In: Kreger-van Rij NJW (Ed) The Yeasts, a Taxonomic Study. 4th ed. (pp 45–104) Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. S. de Hoog
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. H. G. Gerrits van den Ende
    • 1
  • J. M. J. Uijthof
    • 1
  • W. A. Untereiner
    • 3
  1. 1.Centraalbureau voor SchimmelculturesBaarnThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Institute for Molecular Cell BiologyBioCentrum AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Botany DepartmentUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

Personalised recommendations