Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Taxonomy ofPenicillium nalgiovense isolates from mould-fermented sausages

Abstract

A large number ofPenicillium nalgiovense isolates from mould fermented sausages and the ex type culture were examined for characters of morphology, physiology and production of secondary metabolites. To separate biotypes within theP. nalgiovense species, the data obtained were evaluated using multivariate statistical methods. The macromorphological characters of the ex type culture and isolates from meat products appeared to be distinctive. The ex type culture is characterized by a brown reverse on both Czapek yeast extract and malt extract agar while the isolates from meat products have a yellow to orange reverse. Proteolytic and/or lipolytic activity was demonstrated by 75% of the examined cultures and all of them demonstrated ability to utilize lactate as sole carbon source. Growth on creatine sucrose agar was very inhibited and acid production was absent or very weak. TLC analysis showed production of three unknown secondary metabolites that constituted the characteristic profile. HPLC analysis showed production of only three known secondary metabolites; chrysogine (96%), nalgiolaxin and nalgiovensin (9%). The ex type culture produced nalgiolaxin and nalgiovensin but not chrysogine. The chemometric evaluation showed thatP. nalgiovense isolates from meat products from a homogenous species, which can not be divided into biotypes. The only indication of grouping, beside a separation of the ex type culture, was related to the conidium colour (white, turquoise or grey green). The examinedP. nalgiovense isolates showed some resemblance (morphologically and chemically) toP. chrysogenum.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Banke S (1994) ‘Taxonomy of Penicillia’, MSc thesis, Botanical Institute, Copenhagen University, Denmark

  2. Filtenborg O & Frisvad JC (1980) A simple screening method for toxigenic moulds in pure cultures. Lebensm. Wiss. Technol. 13: 128–130

  3. Filtenborg O, Frisvad JC & Svendsen JA (1983) Simple screening method for molds producing intracellular mycotoxins in pure culture. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 45: 581–585

  4. Fink-Gremmels J & Leistner L (1990) Toxicological evaluation of moulds. Food Biotechnology 4: 579–584

  5. Frisvad JC (1981) Physiological criteria and mycotoxin production as aids in identification of common asymmetric Penicillia. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41: 568–579

  6. —— (1985) Creatine sucrose agar, a differential medium for mycotoxin producing terverticillatePenicillium species. Letters in Applied Microbiology 1: 109–113

  7. —— (1992) Chemometrics and chemotaxonomy: a comparison of multivariate statistical methods for the evaluation of binary fungal secondary metabolite data. Chemometrics Intelligent Lab. Syst. 14: 253–269

  8. —— (1993) Modifications on media based on creatine for use inPenicillium andAspergillus taxonomy. Letters in Applied Microbiology 16: 154–157

  9. Frisvad JC & Filtenborg O (1989) Terverticillate penicillia: chemotaxonomy and mycotoxin production. Mycologia 81: 837–861

  10. —— (1990) Revision ofPenicillium subgenusFurcatum based on secondary metabolites and conventional characters. In: Samson RA & Pitt JI (Eds) Modern Concepts inPenicillium andAspergillus Classification. (pp 159–170) Plenum Press, London

  11. Frisvad JC, Filtenborg O & Wicklow DT (1987) Terverticillate penicillia isolated from underground seed caches and cheek pouches of banner-tailed kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis). Canad. J. Bot. 65: 765–773

  12. Frisvad JC & Thrane U (1987) Standardized high-performance liquid chromatography of 182 mycotoxins and other fungal metabolites based on alkylphenone retention indices and UV-VIS spectra (diode array detection). J. Chromatogr. 404: 195–214

  13. Grazia L, Romano P, Bagni A, Roggiani D & Guglielmi G (1986) The role of moulds in the ripening process of salami. Food Microbiology 3: 19–25

  14. Hankin L & Anagnostakis SL (1975) The use of solid media for detection of enzyme production by fungi. Mycologia 67: 597–607

  15. Hwang H-J, Vogel RF & Hammes WP (1993) Entwicklung von Schimmelpilzkulturen für die Rohwurstherstellung, charakterisierung der stämme und toxikologische Bewertung. Fleischwirtschaft 73: 89–92

  16. Kornerup A & Wanscher JH (1978) Methuen Handbook of Colour. Eyre Methuen, London

  17. Laxa O (1932) Über die Reifung des Ellischauer Käses. Zentralbl. Bakteriol. Parasitenk. D. Infektionskr. Abt. II, 86: 160–165

  18. Leistner L (1990) Mould-fermented foods: recent development. Food Biotechnology 4: 433–441

  19. Leistner L & Eckardt C (1979) Vorkommen toxinogener Penicillien bei Fleischerzeugnissen. Fleisch wirtschaft 59: 1892–1896

  20. Pitt JI (1979) The GenusPenicillium and its teleomorphic statesEupenicillium andTalaromyces. Academic Press, London

  21. Raistrick H & Ziffer J (1951) Studies in the biochemistry of microorganisms. 84. The colouring matters ofPenicillium nalgiovensis Laxa. Part 1. Nalgiovensin and nalgiolaxin. Isolation, derivatives and partial structures. Biochem. J. 49: 563–574

  22. Raper KB & Thom C (1949) Manual of thePenicillia. The Williams & Wilkins company, Baltimore

  23. Samson RA (1985) Taxonomic considerations of harmful and beneficial moulds in foods. In: Arai T (Ed) Filamentous Microorganisms. (pp 157–163) Japan Scientific Press, Tokyo

  24. Samson RA & Pitt JI (1990) Modern concepts inPenicillium andAspergillus classification. Plenum Press, New York

  25. Samsom RA & Reenen-Hoekstra ES van (1988) Introduction to food-borne fungi. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Baarn, Netherlands

  26. Sierra G (1957) A simple method for the detection of lipolytic activity of micro-organisms and some observations on the influence of the contact between cells and fatty substrates. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 23: 15–22

  27. Singh K, Frisvad JC, Thrane U & Mathur SB (1991) An illustrated manual on identification of some seed-bomeAspergilli, Fusaria, Penicillia and their mycotoxins. Danish Government Institute of Seed Pathology for Developing Countries, Hellerup, Denmark

  28. Stolk AC, Samson RA, Frisvad JC & Filtenborg O (1990) The systematics of the terverticillate Penicillia. In: Samson RA & Pitt JI (Eds) Modern Concepts inPenicillium andAspergillus Classification. (pp 121–137) Plenum Press, London

Download references

Author information

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Andersen, S.J. Taxonomy ofPenicillium nalgiovense isolates from mould-fermented sausages. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 68, 165–171 (1995). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00873102

Download citation

Key words

  • chemometrics
  • morphology
  • mould-fermented sausages
  • Penicillium nalgiovense
  • physiology
  • secondary metabolites
  • taxonomy