Psychological Research

, Volume 52, Issue 4, pp 330–337 | Cite as

Lexical integration across saccades in reading

  • Albrecht Werner Inhoff
  • Stuart Tousman
Article

Summary

Eye movements were recorded during sentence reading to examine the integration of parafoveal text across fixations. Four viewing conditions were used, each affording full view of the directly fixated word: no preview of the spatially adjacent parafoveal word; preview of its beginning trigram; preview of its beginning four letters; or preview of all its constituent letters. The magnitude of parafoveal-preview benefits (the difference between the no-preview condition and the different parafoveal-preview conditions) was examined as a function of the size of the saccade to the parafoveal target and as a function of the subsequent fixation location at the previewed target. The results revealed no effects of saccade size on parafoveal-preview benefits, but large effects of fixation position during the initial target fixation. Furthermore, parafoveal previews were used during the initial target fixation and during subsequent intratarget refixations. The results support a lexical-text-integration hypothesis which posits that lexical information is integrated across interword fixations and intraword refixations.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Balota, D. A., Pollatsek, A., & Rayner, K. (1985). The interaction of contextual constraints and parafoveal visual information in reading.Cognitive Psychology, 17, 364 - 390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Blanchard, H. E., Pollatsek, A., & Rayner, K. (1989). The acquisition of parafoveal word information in reading.Perception & Psychophysics, 46, 85–94.Google Scholar
  3. Hyona, J., Niemi, P., & Underwood, G. (1989). Reading long words embedded in sentences: Informativeness of world halves affects eye movements.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 15, 142–151.Google Scholar
  4. Inhoff, A. W. (1984). Two stages of word processing during eye fixation in the reading of prose.Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 23, 612 - 624.Google Scholar
  5. Inhoff, A. W. (1989a). Parafoveal processing of words and saccade computation during eye fixations in reading.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 15, 544 - 555.Google Scholar
  6. Inhoff, A. W. (1989b). Lexical access during eye fixations in reading: Are word access codes used to integrate lexical information across interword fixations?Journal of Memory and Language, 28, 444 - 461.Google Scholar
  7. Inhoff, A. W. (1990). Integration to text across interword fixations in reading.Acta Psychologica, 73, 281- 297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Inhoff, A. W., Pollatsek, A., Posner, M. I., & Rayner, K. (1989). Covert attention and eye movements during reading.Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 41A, 63 - 89.Google Scholar
  9. Inhoff, A. W., Rayner, K. (1986). Parafoveal word processing during eye fixations in reading: Effects of word frequency.Perception & Psychophysics, 40, 431 - 440.Google Scholar
  10. Lima, S. D. (1987). Morphological analysis in sentence reading.Journal of Memory and Language, 26, 84 - 99.Google Scholar
  11. Lima, S. D., & Inhoff, A. W. (1985). Lexical access during eye fixations in reading: Effects of word initial letter sequence.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 13, 272–285.Google Scholar
  12. McClelland, J. L., O'Regan, J. K. (1981). Expectations increase the benefit derived from parafoveal visual information in reading words aloud.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 7, 634–644.Google Scholar
  13. McClelland, J. L., & Rumelhart, D. E. (1981). An interactive activation model of context effects in letter perception: Part 1. An account of basic findings.Psychological Review, 88, 375 - 407.Google Scholar
  14. McConkie, G. W., Kerr, P. W., Redix, M. D., Zola, D., & Jacobs, A. M. (1989). Eye movement control during reading: II. Frequency of refixating a word.Perception & Psychophysics, 46, 245 - 253.Google Scholar
  15. McConkie, G. W., & Rayner, K. (1975). The span of the effective stimulus during a fixation in reading.Perception & Psychophysics, 17, 578 - 586.Google Scholar
  16. McConkie, G. W., & Zola, D. (1979). Is visual information integrated across successive fixations in reading?Perception & Psychophysics, 25, 221 - 224.Google Scholar
  17. O'Regan, J. K. (1979). Eye guidance in reading: Evidence for the linguistic control hypothesis.Perception & Psychophysics, 25, 501 - 509.Google Scholar
  18. O'Regan, J. K. (1983). Elementary perception and eye movement control processes in reading. In K.Rayner (Ed.),Eye movements in reading: Perceptual and language processes (pp. 121 - 138). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  19. O'Regan, J. K., & Levi-Schoen, A. (1987). Eye movement strategy and tactics in word recognition and reading. In M.Coltheart (Ed.),Attention and performance (Vol. XII, pp. 353 - 382). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  20. O'Regan, J. K., Levy-Schoen, A., Pynte, J., & Brugaillere, B. (1984). Convenient fixation location within isolated words of different length and structure.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 10, 250 - 257.Google Scholar
  21. Paap, K. R., Newsome, S., McDonald, J. E., Schvaneveldt, R. W. (1982). An activation-verification model for letter and word recognition: The word superiority effect.Psychological Review, 89, 573 - 594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Pollatsek, A., Rayner, K., & Balota, D. A. (1986). Inferences about eye movement control from the perceptual span in reading.Perception & Pychophysics, 40, 123 - 130.Google Scholar
  23. Rayner, K. (1979). Eye guidance in reading: Fixation location within words.Perception, 8, 21 - 30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Rayner, K., & Fischer, D. L. (1987a). Letter processing during eye fixations in visual search. Perception & Psychophysics,42, 87 - 100.Google Scholar
  25. Rayner, K., & Fischer, D. L. (1987b). Eye movements and the perceptual span during visual search. In J. K.O'Regan & A.Levy-Schoen (Eds.),Eye-movements: From physiology to cognition (pp. 285 - 302). Amsterdam: North Holland.Google Scholar
  26. Rayner, K., Inhoff, A. W., Morrison, R. E., Slowiaczek, M. L., & Bertera, J. B. (1981). Masking foveal and parafoveal vision during eye fixations in reading.Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 7, 167 - 179.Google Scholar
  27. Rayner, K., McConkie, G. W., & Zola, D. (1980). Integrating information across eye movements.Cognitive Psychology, 12, 206 - 226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Rayner, K., Well, A. D., Pollatsek, A., Bertera, J. B. (1982). The availability of useful information to the right of fixation in reading.Perception & Psychophysics, 31, 537 - 550.Google Scholar
  29. Reicher, G. M. (1969). Perceptual recognition as a function of meaningfulness of stimulus material.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81, 274–280.Google Scholar
  30. Wheeler, D. D. (1970). Processes in word recognition.Cognitive Psychology, 1, 59 - 85.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Albrecht Werner Inhoff
    • 1
  • Stuart Tousman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyState University of New York at BinghamtonBinghamton, NYUSA

Personalised recommendations