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Plant spacing effects on net irradiance extinction in cotton

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Summary

Decreasing the fraction of water that evaporates from the soil (E) is one means of increasing the water available to crops and thereby increasing the transpiration and the water use efficiency of a cropping system. In addition to soil surface wetness, net irradiance at the soil surface (R ns ) is the predominant environmental element affectingE. TheR ns is infrequently measured and is often estimated using an equation of the formR ns /R n = exp (−k · LAI), whereR n is the abovecanopy net irradiance,k is an extinction coefficient, andLAI is the leaf area index. The effect of row spacing and plant population onk was examined for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) grown on a Houston Black clay (fine, montmorillonitic, thermic Udic Pellustert). Treatments consisted of 10 and 15 plants m−2 in 0.68- and 0.34-m north-south oriented rows and in a uniformly-spaced pattern. HourlyR n andR ns were measured with a domed and tubular net radiometer, respectively. TheR n was approximately a constant fraction of global irradiance across treatments and throughout the season. Minimum values of theR ns /R n ratio ranged from 0.14 to 0.24. Values ofk, calculated as the slope of the regression of ln (R ns /R n ) with theLAI, ranged from 0.44 to 0.66. Plant population affectedk more than row spacing. Thek value calculated from pooled data was 0.52.

Zusammenfassung

Ein Weg zur Steigerung der Wasserverfügbarkeit für Feldfrüchte ist es, den Wasseranteil, der vom Boden verdunstet (E) zu verringern und damit die Transpiration und die Effektivität der Wassernutzung der angebauten Pflanzen zu erhöhen. Zusätzlich zur Oberflächennässe des Bodens ist es die Nettoeinstrahlung an der Bodenoberfläche (R ns ), dieE dominiert.R ns wird selten gemessen und häufig durch eine Gleichung der FormR ns /R n = exp (−k · LAI) abgeschätzt, wobeiR n die Nettoeinstrahlung über dem Bestand ist,k ein Extinktionskoeffizient undLAI der Blattflächenindex. Der Effekt des Reihenabstandes und der Pflanzendichte aufk wurde für Baumwolle (Gossypium hirsutum L.), gezogen auf einer Schwarzerde untersucht. Auf den Untersuchungspunkten standen 10 bzw. 15 Pflanzen/m2 in 0.68 bzw. 0.34 m breiten, nord-süd-orientierten Reihen mit regelmäßigen Pflanzabständen. StündlicheR n - undR ns -Werte wurden mit einem Kuppel- bzw. Tuben-Nettostrahlungsmesser gemessen.R n war über die Untersuchungspunkte und die Anbauzeit annähernd ein konstanter Anteil der Globalstrahlung. Die Minimalwerte des VerhältnissesR n /R ns bewegten sich von 0.14 bis 0.24. Die Werte vonk, die als Anstieg der Regression von ln (R ns /R n ) mitLAI berechnet wurden, bewegten sich von 0.44 bis 0.66. Die Pflanzendichte beinflußtek deutlicher als der Reihenabstand. Derk-Wert für alle Daten war 0.52.

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Dugas, W.A. Plant spacing effects on net irradiance extinction in cotton. Theor Appl Climatol 40, 93–99 (1989). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00867795

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Keywords

  • Leaf Area Index
  • Plant Population
  • Gossypium Hirsutum
  • Spacing Effect
  • Soil Surface Wetness