Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 41, Issue 1–2, pp 11–21 | Cite as

Mean seasonal and spatial variability in global surface air temperature

  • D. R. Legates
  • C. J. Willmott
Article

Summary

Using terrestrial observations of shelter-height air temperature and shipboard measurements, a global climatology of mean monthly surface air temperature has been compiled. Data were obtained from ten sources, screened for coding errors, and redundant station records were removed. The combined data base consists of 17 986 independent terrestrial station records and 6 955 oceanic grid-point records. These data were then interpolated to a 0.5° of latitude by 0.5° of longitude lattice using a spherically-based interpolation algorithm. Spatial distributions of the annual mean and intra-annual variance are presented along with a harmonic decomposition of the intra-annual variance.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. ADND, 1965:Fitzroy Region, Queensland — Climate. Canberra: Australian Department of National Development, Resources Information and Development Branch.Google Scholar
  2. Baker, D. G., 1975: Effect of observation time on mean temperature estimation.J. Appl. Meteor. 14, 471–476.Google Scholar
  3. Bennett, R. J., Haining R. P., Griffith, D. A., 1984: The problem of missing data on spatial surfaces.Ann. Assoc. Amer. Geogr. 74, 138–156.Google Scholar
  4. CSIRO, 1962–1971:Land Research Series Nos. 6–14, 17–22, 24–29. Melbourne: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization.Google Scholar
  5. Fleagle, R. G., Deardorff, J. W., Badgley, F. I., 1958: Vertical distribution of wind speed, temperature and humidity above a water surface.J. Marine Res. 17, 141–155.Google Scholar
  6. Fletcher, J. O., Slutz, R. J., Woodruff, S. D., 1983: Towards a comprehensive ocean-atmosphere data set.Tropical Oceanic and Atmospheric Newsletter 20 13–14.Google Scholar
  7. Hansen, J., Lebedeff, S., 1987: Global trends of measured surface air temperature.J. Geophys. Res. 92, 13345–13372.Google Scholar
  8. Hsu, C. F., Wallace, J. M., 1976: The global distribution of the annual and semiannual cycles in precipitation.Mon. Wea. Rev. 104, 1093–1101.Google Scholar
  9. Jones, P. D., Kelley, P. M., 1983: The spatial and temporal characteristics of northern hemisphere surface air temperature variations.J. Climatol. 3, 243–252.Google Scholar
  10. Jones, P. D., Raper, S. C. B., Bradley, R. S., Diaz, H. F., Kelly, P. M., Wigley, T. M. L., 1986: Northern hemisphere surface air temperature variations: 1851–1984.J. Climate App Meteor. 25 161–179.Google Scholar
  11. Lam, N. S.-N., 1983: Spatial interpolation methods: a review.The American Cartographer 10, 129–149.Google Scholar
  12. Legates, D. R., 1987: A climatology of global precipitation.Pub. Climatol. 40, (1), 1–85.Google Scholar
  13. Mitchell, J. M. Jr., 1953: On the causes of instrumentally observed secular temperature trends.J. Meteor. 10, 244–257.Google Scholar
  14. Mitchell, J. M. Jr., 1958: Effect of changing observation time on mean temperature.Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 39 83–89.Google Scholar
  15. Nuttonson, M. Y., 1947:Ecological Crop Geography of China and Its Agro-Climatic Analogues in North America. Washington, D.C.: American Institute of Crop Ecology, 28 pp.Google Scholar
  16. Oliver, J. E., Fairbridge, R. W., 1987:Encyclopedia of Climatology. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 986 pp.Google Scholar
  17. Rand McNally & Co., 1980:The New International Atlas. Chicago: Rand McNally & Co., 320 pp.Google Scholar
  18. Rayner, J.N., 1971:An Introduction to Spectral Analysis. London: Pion Limited, 174 pp.Google Scholar
  19. van Rooy, M. P., 1957:Meteorology of the Antarctic. South Africa: Government Printer, 240 pp.Google Scholar
  20. Sabbagh, M. E., Bryson, R. A., 1962: Aspects of the precipitation climatology of Canada investigated by the method of harmonic analysis.Ann. Assoc. Amer. Geogr. 52, 426–440.Google Scholar
  21. Schaal, L. A., Dale, R. F., 1977: Time of observation temperature bias and climatic change.J. Appl. Meteor. 16, 215–222.Google Scholar
  22. Schwerdtfeger, W., 1984:Weather and Climate of the Antarctic. The Netherlands: Elsevier, Developments in Atmospheric Science No. 15, 261 pp.Google Scholar
  23. Shepard, D., 1968: A two-dimensional interpolation function for irregularly-spaced data.Proceedings of the Twenty-Third ACM Conference, 517–524.Google Scholar
  24. Shepard, D., 1984: Computer mapping: the SYMAP interpolation algorithm.Spatial Statistics and Models. (Gaile, G. L., and Willmott, C. J., eds) Dordrecht: D. Reidel Publishing: 133–146.Google Scholar
  25. Slutz, R. J., Lubker, S. J., Hiscox, J. D., Woodruff, S. D., Jenne, R. L., Joseph, D. H., Steurer, P. M., Elms, J. D., 1985:Comprehensive Ocean-Atmospheric Data Set; Release 1. Boulder, CO.: NOAA Environmental Research Laboratories, Climate Research Program, 268 pp.Google Scholar
  26. Spangler, W. M. L., Jenne, R. L., 1984:World Monthly Surface Station Climatology. Boulder, CO.: National Center for Atmospheric Research, Scientific Computing Division, 14 pp.Google Scholar
  27. Terjung, W. H., Hayes, J. T., Ji, H-Y, Todhunter, P. E., O'Rourke, P. A., 1985: Potential paddy rice yields for rainfed and irrigated agriculture in China and Korea.Ann. Assoc. Amer. Geogr. 75, 83–101.Google Scholar
  28. U.S. Navy, 1981:U.S. Navy Marine Climatic Atlas of the World. Volume XI: Worldwide Means and Standard Deviations. NAVAIR 50-1C-532, Naval Weather Service Detachment.Google Scholar
  29. Washington, W. M., Parkinson, C. L., 1986:An Introduction to Three-Dimensional Climate Modeling. Mill Valley, California: University Science Books, 422 pp.Google Scholar
  30. Wernstedt, F. L., 1972:World Climatic Data. Lemont, P. A.: Climatic Data Press, 552 pp.Google Scholar
  31. Willmott, C. J., 1987: Models, climatic.Encyclopedia of Climatology. (Oliver, J. E., and Fairbridge, R. W., eds.), New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 584–590.Google Scholar
  32. Willmott, C. J., Mather, J. R., Rowe, C. M., 1981: Average monthly and annual surface air temperature and precipitation data for the world. Part 1: the eastern hemisphere. Part 2: the western hemisphere.Publ. Climatol. 34, (1) 1–395; (2) 1–378.Google Scholar
  33. Willmott, C. J., Rowe, C. M., Mintz, Y., 1985a: Climatology of the terrestrial seasonal water cycle.J. Climatol. 5, 589–606.Google Scholar
  34. Willmott, C. J., Rowe, C. M., Philpot, W. D., 1985b: Smallscale climate maps: a sensitivity analysis of some common assumptions associated with grid point interpolation and contouring.The American Cartographer 12, 5–16.Google Scholar
  35. Woodruff, S. D., 1985: The comprehensive oceanatmospheric data set.Third Conference on Climate Variations and Symposium on Contemporary Climate 1850–2100, American Meteorological Society, 14–15.Google Scholar
  36. Woodruff, S. D., 1987: Personal Communication. Boulder, CO.: Environmental Research Laboratories.Google Scholar
  37. Woodruff, S. D., Slutz, R. J., Jenne, R. L., Steurer, P. M., 1987: A comprehensive ocean-atmosphere data set.Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 68 1239–1250.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. R. Legates
    • 1
  • C. J. Willmott
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Geography, College of GeosciencesUniversity of OklahomaNormanUSA
  2. 2.Center for Climatic Research, Department of GeographyUniversity of DelawareNewarkUSA

Personalised recommendations