Regulating systems, that is, those which exhibit scale-invariant patterns in the adult, are supposed, to do so on account of interactions between cells during development. The nature of these interactions has to be such that the system of positional information (“map”) in the embryo also regulates. To our knowledge, this supposition regarding a regulating map has not been subjected to a direct test in any embryonic system. Here we do so by means of a simple and novel criterion and use it to examine tip regeneration in the mulicellular stage (slug) ofDictyostelium discoideum. When anterior, tip-containing fragments of slugs are amputated, a new tip spontaneously regenerates at the cut surface of the (remaining) posterior fragment. The time needed for regeneration to occur depends on the relative size of the amputated fragment but is independent of the total size of the slug. We conclude from this finding that there is at least one system underlying positional information in the slug which regulates.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Arnold IM (1968) The role of the egg cortex in cephalopod development. Dev Biol 18:180–197
Bonner JT (1967) The Cellular Slime Molds (2nd ed, Princeton Univ Press, New Jersey)
Bonner JT, Chiquoine AD, Kolderie MQ (1955) A histochemical study of differentiation in the cellular slime molds. J Exp Zool 130:133–158
Cohen MR (1971) Models for the control of development. Symp Soc Exp Biol 25:455–476
Cooke J (1975) The emergence and regulation of spatial organisation in early animal development. Ann Rev Biophys Bioengg 4:185–217
Gierer A, Meinhardt H (1972) A theory of biological pattern formation. Kybernetik 12:30–39
Goodwin BC, Cohen MH (1969) A phase-shift model for the spatial and temporal organisation of developing systems. J Theor Biol 25:49–107
Graham CF, Wareing PF (1976) The Developmental Biology of Plants and Animals. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford
Lacalli TC, Harrison LG (1978) The regulatory capacity of Turing's model for morphogenesis, with application to slime molds. J Theor Biol 70:273–295
Loomis WF Jr (1972) Role of the surface sheath in the control of morphogenesis inDictyostelium discoideum. Nature 240:6–9
McMahon D (1973) A cell contact model for cellular position determination inDictyostelium discoideum. Proc Acad Nat Sci USA 70:2396–2400
Othmer H, Pate E (1980) Scale-invariance in reaction-diffusion models of spatial pattern formation. Proc Acad Nat Sci USA 77 (7):4180–4184
Raper KB (1940) Pseudoplasmodium formation and organization inDictyostelium discoideum. J Elisha Mitchell Sci Soc 56:241–282
Robertson A, Cohen MH (1972) Control of developing fields. Ann Rev Biophys Bioengg 1:409–464
Rose SM (1970) Regeneration. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York
Rubin J, Robertson A (1976) The tip of theDictyostelium discoideum pseudoplasmodium as an organiser. J Embryol Exp Morphol 33:227–241
Sakai Y (1973) Cell type conversion in isolated prestalk and prespore fragments of the cellular slime moldDictyostelium discoideum. Dev Growth & Differ 15:11–19
Spiegel FW, Cox EC (1980) A one-dimensional pattern, in the cellular slime mouldPolysphondylium pallidum. Nature 286:806–807
Stenhouse FO, Williams KL (1977) Patterning inDictyostelium discoideum: the proportions of the three differentiated cell types (spore stalk and basal disc) in the fruiting body. Dev Biol 59:140–152
Sussman M, Schindler J (1978) A possible mechanism of morphogenetic regulation inDictyostelium discoideum. Differentiation 10:1–5
Takeuchi I (1969) Establishment of polar organization during slime mold development. In: Cowdry EV, Deno S (eds) “Nucleic acid metabolism, cell differentiation and cancer growth”, Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 297–304
Turing AM (1952) The chemical basis of morphogenesis. Phil Trans R Soc (Lond) Ser B 237:37–72
Wilson EB (1904) The cell in development and heredity. 2nd ed. Macmillan, New York
Wolpert L (1969) Positional Information and the Spatial Pattern of Cellular Differentiation. J Theor Biol 25:1–47
About this article
Cite this article
Lokeshwar, B.L., Nanjundiah, V. The scale-invariance of spatial patterning in a developing system. Wilhelm Roux' Archiv 190, 361–364 (1981). https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00863274
- Positional Information