Entrapment of left renal vein in children with orthostatic proteinuria
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We found that patients with orthostatic proteinuria had entrapment of the left renal vein (LRV) by the aorta and superior mesenteric artery (SMA). Of 15 patients studied, ultrasonographic examination showed 13 cases of typical LRV entrapment with prestenotic dilatation, and 2 cases of mild LRV compression between the aorta and SMA. Intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography and monitoring of pull-back pressure from LRV to the inferior vena cava (IVC) were performed on 2 patients with 4+ proteinuria. Accumulation of contrast medium was seen with mild back-flow to the collateral veins, and pressure gradients between LRV and IVC were 4 mmHg and 8 mmHg, respectively. Eighty school-children formed a control group and were investigated ultrasonically. Nine showed typical LRV entrapment, among whom 3 had moderate to massive orthostatic proteinuria. The discovery of LRV entrapment in patients with orthostatic proteinuria gives definite evidence of LRV congestion and may be possibly a cause of massive protein secretion from the left kidney.
Key wordsOrthostatic proteinuria Intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography Ultrasonography Left renal vein entrapment Nutcracker phenomenon
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