Annals of sex research

, Volume 2, Issue 4, pp 307–334 | Cite as

Development and validation of the Sexual Self-Disclosure Scale

  • William E. SnellJr.
  • Sharyn S. Belk
  • Dennis R. Papini
  • Steve Clark

Abstract

The recent literature on human sexuality emphasizes the importance of sexual communication. The present research reports the results of three studies documenting the development and validation of an instrument concerned with sexual communication, the Sexual Self-Disclosure Scale (SSDS). The results in Study I indicated that the twelve SSDS subscales were highly reliable and that women were more willing to discuss the topics on the SSDS with female than male therapists. A second study revealed that men's and women's responses to the SSDS were related in meaningful, predictable ways to their sexual-esteem, sexual-depression and sexual-preoccupation, as measured by the Sexuality Scale. In Study III, the SSDS was revised to include a wider variety of sexual topics dealing with sexual behaviors, values-preferences, attitudes, and feelings. The results from Study III indicated that men's and women's responses to the SSDS-R varied as a function of their own gender and the content of the sexual topics. The discussion focuses on the increased need for communication about sexual issues, the implications of the present findings for intimate relationships, and the possible uses of the Sexual Self-Disclosure Scale in the study of human sexuality.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allgeier, E.R., & Allgeier, A.R. (1984).Sexual interactions. Lexington, Mass.: Heath.Google Scholar
  2. Bailey, W.C., Hendrick, C., & Hendrick, S.S. (1987). Relation of sex and gender role to love, sexual attitudes, and self-esteem.Sex Roles, 16, 637–648.Google Scholar
  3. Belk, S.S., & Snell, W.E., Jr. (1988). Avoidance strategy use.Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 7, 80–96.Google Scholar
  4. Belk, S.S., & Snell, W.E., Jr. (in press). Stereotypic beliefs about women as moderators of stress-distress relationships.Journal of Clinical Psychology.Google Scholar
  5. Belk, S.S., & Snell, W.E., Jr. (1985, April). The attribution of beliefs about women to mentally healthy women and men: The influence of counseling orientation. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southwestern Psychological Association, Austin, Texas.Google Scholar
  6. Belk, S.S., & Snell, W.E., Jr. (1986a). The Beliefs About Women Scale (BAWS): Components and correlates.Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 12, 403–413.Google Scholar
  7. Belk, S.S., & Snell, W.E., Jr. (1986b). The Beliefs About Women Scale (BAWS): Scale development and validation.Social and Behavioral Sciences Documents, 16, 10. (Ms. No. 2747).Google Scholar
  8. Belk, S. S., Snell, W. E., Jr., Garcia-Falconi, R., & Hernandez-Sanchez, J. E. (1985, April). Mental health standards for women and men: A cross-cultural study of mentally healthy beliefs about women. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southwestern Psychological Association, Austin, Texas.Google Scholar
  9. Byrne, D., & Byrne, L.A. (Eds.). (1977).Exploring human sexuality. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  10. Byrne, D., & Fisher, W.A. (1983).Adolescents, sex, and contraception. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  11. Delamater, J., & MacCorquodale, P. (1979).Premarital sexuality: Attitudes, relationships, behavior. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar
  12. Fisher, T. D. (1986). Parent-child communication about sex and young adolescents' sexual knowledge and attitudes.Adolescence, 83, 517–527.Google Scholar
  13. Fisher, T. D. (1987). Family communication and the sexual behavior and attitudes of college students.Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16, 481–495.Google Scholar
  14. Fisher, T. D., & Hall, R. G. (1988). A scale for the comparison of the sexual attitudes of adolescents and their parents.Journal of Sex Research, 24, 90–100.Google Scholar
  15. Gross, A.E. (1980). The male role and heterosexual behavior. In T. M. Skovholt, P. G. Schauble, & R. Davis (Eds.),Counseling men (pp. 52–70). Monterey, California: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  16. Hendrick, S. S., & Hendrick, C. (in press). Multidemensionality of sexual attitudes.Journal of Sex Research.Google Scholar
  17. Hendrick, D., & Hendrick, S. (1986). A theory and method of love.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 392–402.Google Scholar
  18. Hendrick, C., Hendrick, S.S., Foote, F.H., & Slapion-Foote, M.J. (1984). Do men and women love differently?Journal of Social and Personal Relationship, 1, 177–195.Google Scholar
  19. Hendrick, S.S., Hendrick, C., Slapion-Foote, M.J., & Foote, F.H. (1985). Gender differences in sexual attitudes.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 1630–1642.Google Scholar
  20. Herold, E.S., & Way, L. (1988). Sexual self-disclosure among university women.Journal of Sex Research, 24, 1–14.Google Scholar
  21. Hopkins, J.R. (1977). Sexual behavior in adolescence.Journal of Social Issues, 33(2), 67–85.Google Scholar
  22. Kaats, G.R., & Davis, K.E. (1970). The dynamics of sexual behavior of college students.Journal of Marriage and the Family, 32, 390–399.Google Scholar
  23. Kahn, J.R. (1985). Sexual messages: Parental influences on children's sexual development. In D.C. Goldberg (Ed.),Contemporary marriage (pp. 261–289). Homewood, Illinois: Dorsey Press.Google Scholar
  24. Kaplan, H.S. (1974).The new sex therapy: Active treatment of sexual dysfunctions. Brunner/Maazel: New York.Google Scholar
  25. Kaplan, H.S. (1979).Disorders of sexual desire. Brunner/Maazel: New York.Google Scholar
  26. Leary, M.R., & Dobbins, S.E. (1983). Social anxiety, sexual behavior, and contraceptive use.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 1347–1354.Google Scholar
  27. Mercer, G.W., & Kohn, P.M. (1979). Gender differences in the integration of conservatism, sex urge, and sexual behaviors among college students.Journal of Sex Research, 15, 129–142.Google Scholar
  28. Mosher, D.L. (1979). Sex guilt and sex myths in college men and women.Journal of Sex Research, 15, 224–234.Google Scholar
  29. Papini, D.R., Clark, S., Barnett, J.K., & Snell, W.E., Jr. (1988). Early adolescent age and gender differences in patterns of emotional self-disclosure to parents and friends. Submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  30. Papini, D.R., Farmer, F.L., Clark, S., & Snell, W.E., Jr. (1988). An evaluation of adolescent patterns of sexual self-disclosure to parents and friends.Journal of Adolescent Research, 3, 387–401.Google Scholar
  31. Papini, D.R., Snell, W.E., Jr., Belk, S.S., & Clark, S. (1988, April).Developmental correlates of women's and men's sexual self-disclosures. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southwestern Psychological Association, Tulsa, OK.Google Scholar
  32. Peplau, L.A., Rubin, Z., & Hill, C.T. (1977). Sexual intimacy in dating relationships.Journal of Social Issues, 33, 86–109.Google Scholar
  33. Snell, W.E., Jr. (1986a). Convergent and discriminant validity of the Masculine Role Inventory. Submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  34. Snell, W.E., Jr. (1986b). The Masculine Role Inventory: Components and correlates.Sex Roles, 15, 443–455.Google Scholar
  35. Snell, W.E., Jr. (1988, April). Validation of the Extended Masculine Role Inventory. Paper presented at the 34th annual meeting of the Southwestern Psychological Association, Tulsa, Oklahoma.Google Scholar
  36. Snell, W.E., Jr., Belk, S.S., & Hawkins, R.C. II. (1986a). The masculine role as a moderator of stress-distress relationships.Sex Roles, 15, 359–366.Google Scholar
  37. Snell, W.E., Jr., Belk, S.S., & Hawkins, R.C. II. (1986b). The Stereotypes About Male Sexuality Scale (SAMSS): Components, correlates, antecedents, consequences, and counselor bias.Social and Behavioral Sciences Document, 16, 9. (Ms. No. 2746).Google Scholar
  38. Snell, W.E., Jr., Belk, S.S., & Hawkins, R.C. II. (1987). Alcohol and drug use in stressful times: The influence of the masculine role and sex-related personality attributes.Sex Roles, 11, 359–373.Google Scholar
  39. Snell, W.E., Jr., Hawkins, R.C. II., & Belk, S.S. (1988). Stereotypes about male sexuality and the use of social influence strategies in intimate realtionships.Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 7, 42–48.Google Scholar
  40. Snell, W.E., Jr., & Papini, D.R. (1989). The Sexuality Scale: An instrument to measure sexual-esteem, sexual-depression, and sexual preoccupation.Journal of Sex Research, 26, 256–263.Google Scholar
  41. Werner, P.D. (1988). Personality correlates of reproductive knowledge.Journal of Sex Research, 25, 219–234.Google Scholar
  42. Zilbergeld, B. (1978).Male sexuality: a guide to sexual fulfillment. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Juniper Press 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • William E. SnellJr.
    • 1
  • Sharyn S. Belk
    • 2
  • Dennis R. Papini
    • 3
  • Steve Clark
    • 3
  1. 1.Southwest Missouri State UniversityCape Girardeau
  2. 2.University of Texas at AustinUSA
  3. 3.University of Arkansas at FayettevilleUSA

Personalised recommendations