Advertisement

Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 15, Issue 1, pp 3–14 | Cite as

Social health and the forgiving heart: The Type B story

  • Berton H. Kaplan
Article

Abstract

The evolution of the Type A hypothesis is well documented. The protective corresponding Type B construct has not evolved similarly. Using experiences from Friedman's Recurrent Coronary Prevention Project, on a speculative basis, four neglected protective processes are examined: uniqueness/self-esteem/autonomy, forgiveness, sociability, and “causal” wisdom attributions. A more integrative set of questions is proposed to expand our knowledge of adaptive fitness and success.

Key words

Type B coronary heart disease social health the forgiving heart 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Antonvosky, A. (1979).Health, Stress, and Coping, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  2. Bloom, A. (1987).The Closing of the American Mind, Simon and Schuster, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Bowlby, J. (1974).Attachment and Loss, Hogarth Press, London.Google Scholar
  4. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979).The Ecology of Human Development, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, R. (1987).Analyzing Love, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  6. Buber, M. (1950).The Way of Man According to the Teachings of Hasidism, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.Google Scholar
  7. Cannon, W. (1939).The Wisdom of the Body, Norton, New York.Google Scholar
  8. Cantor, N., Norem, J. K., Niedenthal, P. M., and Langston, C. A. (1987). Life tasks, self concept ideals, and cognitive strategies in a life transition.J. Personal Soc. Psychol. 53: 1178–1191.Google Scholar
  9. Cassel, J. (1976). The contribution of the social environment to host resistance.Am. J. Epidemiol. 104: 127–133.Google Scholar
  10. Coehlo, G. V., Hamburg, D. A., and Adams, J. E. (eds.) (1974).Coping and Adaptation, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Cohen, S., and Syme, L. (eds.) (1988).Social Support and Health, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Dembroski, T. M., and Czajkowski, S. (1989). Historical and current developments in coronary prone behavior. In Siegman, A. W., and Dembroski, T. M. (eds.),In Search of Coronary Prone Behavior: Beyond Type A, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, N.J., pp. 21–40.Google Scholar
  13. Dembroski, T. M., Weiss, S. W., Shields, J. L., Haynes, S. G., and Feinleib, M. (eds.) (1978).Coronary Prone Behavior, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 64–66.Google Scholar
  14. Dressler, W. W. (1989). Type A behavior and the social production of cardiovascular disease.J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 177: 181–190.Google Scholar
  15. Eisdorfer, C., and Elliot, G. R. (eds.) (1982).Stress and Human Health, National Academy of Science Press, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  16. Elder, G. (1974).Children of the Depression, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  17. Engels, G. (1974). The psychosomatic approach to individual susceptibility to disease,Gastroenterology 67: 1085–1093.Google Scholar
  18. Fitzgibbons, R. P. (1986). The cognitive and emotive uses of forgiveness in the treatment of anger.Psychotherapy 23: 629–632.Google Scholar
  19. Friedman, M., and Rosenman, R. H. (1974).Type A Behavior and Your Heart, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, p. 67.Google Scholar
  20. Friedman, M., and Ulmer, D. (1984).Treating Type A Behavior and Your Heart, Fawcett, New York, p. 75.Google Scholar
  21. Friedman, M., Thoresen, C., Gill, J., Ulmer, D., Powell, L. H.,et al. (1986). Alterations of Type A behavior and its effects on cardiac recurrence in post-myocardial infarction patients: Summary results of the coronary prevention recurrence project.Am. Heart J. 112: 653–665.Google Scholar
  22. Hamburg, D., and Hamburg, B. (1981). Coping and adaptation. In Kaplan, B. H., and Ibrahim, M. A. (eds.),Family and Interventions, Institute for Research in Social Science, Chapel Hill, N.C.Google Scholar
  23. Hamburg, D., Hamburg, B., and Barchas, J. (1975). Depression in Evolutionary Perspective. In Levi, L. (ed.),Parameters of Emotion, Raven Press, New York, pp. 235–278.Google Scholar
  24. Harris, G. G. (1989). The concept of individual, self, and person in description and analysis,Am. Anthropol. 91: 599–612.Google Scholar
  25. Haworth, L. (1986).Autonomy, Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn. (See the early work of Robert W. White.)Google Scholar
  26. Henderson, A. S. (1988).An Introduction to Social Psychiatry, Oxford University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  27. Hendrick, C. (ed.). (1989).Close Relationships.,Sage, London.Google Scholar
  28. Hinkle, L. E., and Wolff, H. G. (1957). Health and social environment: Experimental investigations. In Leighton, A. H.,et al. (Eds.),Explorations in Social Psychiatry, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  29. Hope, D. (1987). The healing paradox of forgiveness.Psychotherapy 24: 240–244.Google Scholar
  30. Hunter, S., and Sundel, M. (eds.) (1989).Midlife Myths, Sage, London.Google Scholar
  31. James, W. (1902).The Variety of Religious Experience, Longmans, Green, London.Google Scholar
  32. Jenkins, C. D. (1978). Behavioral risk factors in coronary disease.Annu. Rev. Med. 29: 543–562.Google Scholar
  33. Jenkins, C. D., Zyzanski, S. J., and Rosenman, R. H. (1976). Risk of new myocardial infarction in middle aged men with coronary heart disease.Circulation 53: 342–347.Google Scholar
  34. Kobassa, S. (1979). Stressful life events, personality, and health: An inquiry into hardiness.J. Personal. Soc. Psychol. 37: 1–11 (and related work).Google Scholar
  35. Lazarus, R. S., and Folkman, S. (1984).Stress Appraisal and Coping, Springer, New York.Google Scholar
  36. Leighton, A. H. (1959).My Name is Legion, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  37. Margolis, L. H., McLeroy, K. L., Runyan, C. W., and Kaplan, B. H. (1983). Type A behavior: An ecological approach.J. Behav. Med. 6: 245–257.Google Scholar
  38. Maslow, A. H. (1987).Motivation and Personality (3rd ed.), Harper & Row, New York.Google Scholar
  39. Matthews, K. A., and Haynes, S. G. (1986). Type A behavior pattern and coronary risk: Update and clinical evaluation.Am. J. Epidemiol. 6: 923–960.Google Scholar
  40. Milton, J. (1957).Complete Poems and Major Prose, Merritt Y. Hughes, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Moos, R. (ed.) (1986).Coping with Life Crises, Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  42. Ornish, D. (1990).Reversing Heart Disease, Random House, New York.Google Scholar
  43. Osler, W. (1910). The Lumleian Lectures on angina pectoris.Lancet 1: 697, 839, 973.Google Scholar
  44. Osterweis, M., Solomon, F., and Green, M. (eds.) (1984).Bereavement, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  45. Parks, M., and Hind, J. S. (1982).Place of Attachment in Human Behavior, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar
  46. Powell, L. H. (1987). Issues in the measurement of Type A behavior pattern. In Kasl, S. B. and Cooper, C. (eds.),Stress and Health Issues in Research Methodology, Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 231–282.Google Scholar
  47. Ragland, D. R. (1989). Letter.N. Engl. J. Med. 319: 394. (Ragland's citation of Friedman's Recurrent Coronary Prevention Project work is confusing, Friedman did find that Type A intervention was protective. In any case, David Ragland provides a complete bibliography.)Google Scholar
  48. Rosenman, R., Brand, R. J., Jenkins, C. D., Friedman, M., Strauss, R., and Worm, M. (1975). Coronary heart disease and the Western Collaborative Group Study: Final follow-up experience of 8 1/2 years.JAMA 23: 872.Google Scholar
  49. Selye, H. (1956).The Stress of Life, McGraw-Hill, New York (2nd ed., 1976).Google Scholar
  50. Siegman, A. W., and Dembroski, T. M. (eds.) (1989).In Search of Coronary Prone Behavior: Beyond Type A, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, N.J. (This recent review does not deal with the evolution of Type B.)Google Scholar
  51. Stark, W. (1976).The Social Bond, Fordham University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  52. Storrs, A. (1988).Churchill's Black Dog and Kafka's Mice, Grove Press, New York (for a discussion of Jung's contribution to our understanding of individuality).Google Scholar
  53. Sulls, G., and Sanders, G. S. (1989). Why do some behavioral styles place people at coronary risk? In Siegman, A. W., and Dembroski, T. M. (eds.),In Search of Coronary Prone Behavior: Beyond Type A, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, N.J., pp. 1–20. (See previous references to Dembroski, Williams, Powell, Matthews, and Haynes.)Google Scholar
  54. Vaillant, G. (1977).Adaptation to Life, Little, Brown, Boston.Google Scholar
  55. Warren, R. P. (1975).Democracy and Poetry, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  56. White, R. W. (1979). Competence as an aspect of personal growth. In Kent, M. W., and Rolf, J. E. (eds.),Social Competence in Children, University Press of New England, Hanover, N.H.Google Scholar
  57. Williams R. (1989).The Trusting Heart, Times Books, New York.Google Scholar
  58. Williams, R. B. (1989). Biological mechanisms mediating the relationship between behavior and coronary heart disease. In Siegman, A. W., and Dembroski, T. M. (eds.),In Search of Coronary Prone Behavior Beyond: Type A, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, N.J., pp. 195–204.Google Scholar
  59. Wilson, R. N. (1979).The Writer as Seer, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.Google Scholar
  60. Wilson, R. N. (1989). Ax for the frozen sea: Kafka's social psychology. Paper given at the Southern Sociological Society, April.Google Scholar
  61. Wolinsky, F. D. (1988).The Sociology of Health, Wadsworth, Belmont, Calif.Google Scholar
  62. Yalom, I. D. (1980).Existential Psychotherapy, Basic Books, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Berton H. Kaplan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology, School of Public HealthUniversity of North CarolinaChapel Hill

Personalised recommendations