Advertisement

Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 8, Issue 4, pp 353–376 | Cite as

Social influences and constraints on the initiation and cessation of adolescent tobacco use

  • William F. Skinner
  • James L. Massey
  • Marvin D. Krohn
  • Ronald M. Lauer
Article

Abstract

This research examines the viability of a theoretical perspective which combines social bonding theory and differential association theory in explaining the initiation and cessation of adolescent tobacco use. Three-year panel data collected from seventh- to twelfth-grade adolescents were analyzed using differences in means tests and discriminant analysis. The findings indicate overall support for the theoretical model in discriminating between (1) initiators and stable nonsmokers and (2) cessators and stable smokers. However, there were some differences in the variables found to be important at each stage of adolescent smoking. Commitment to education, attachment to father and mother, and association with female smoking friends were the most effective discriminators for the initiation stage, while attachment to father, beliefs, and association with both male and female smoking friends were important for the cessation stage. Findings are also discussed for males and females and for junior and senior high-school adolescents.

Key words

adolescent smoking initiation cessation social bonding theory differential association theory 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akers, R. L., Krohn, M. D., Lanza-Kaduce, L., and Radosevich, M. J. (1979). Social learning and deviant behavior: A specific test of a general theory.Am. Sociol. Rev. 44: 636–655.Google Scholar
  2. Akers, R. L., Massey, J. L., Clarke, W., and Lauer, R. M. (1983). Are self-reports of adolescent deviance valid? Biochemical measures, randomized response, and the bogus pipeline in smoking behavior.Soc. Forces 62: 234–251.Google Scholar
  3. Allegrante, J. P., O'Rourke, T. W., and Tunclap, S. (1977). A multivariate analyses of selected psychological variables in the development of subsequent youth smoking behavior.J. Drug Educ. 1: 237–248.Google Scholar
  4. Bachman, J. G., O'Malley, P. M., and Johnston, L. D. (1978).Adolescence to Adulthood: A Study of Change in Stability in the Lives of Young Men, Youth in Transition, Vol. II, Institute for Social Research, Ann Arbor, Mich.Google Scholar
  5. Baer, D. J., and Katkin, J. M. (1971). Imitation of smoking by sons and daughters who smoke and smoking behavior of parents.J. Genet. Psychol. 118: 293–296.Google Scholar
  6. Banks, M. H., Bewley, B. R., Bland, J. M., Dean, T. R., and Pollard, V. (1978). Long-term study of smoking by secondary school children.Arc. Dis. Child. 53: 12–19.Google Scholar
  7. Bewley, B. K., Bland, J. M., and Harris, R. (1974). Factors associated with the starting of cigarette smoking by primary school children.Br. J. Prevent. Soc. Med. 28: 37–44.Google Scholar
  8. Caswell, S., and Hood, M. (1977). Recreational drug use among Auckland high school students.N. Z. Med. J. 84: 315–319.Google Scholar
  9. Chassin, L., Presson, C. C., Bensenberg, M., Corty, E., Olshavsky, R. W., and Sherman, S. J. (1981). Predicting adolescents' intentions to smoke cigarettes.J. Health Soc. Behav. 22: 445–455.Google Scholar
  10. Conger, R. (1976). Social control and social learning models of delinquency: A synthesis.Criminology 14: 17–40.Google Scholar
  11. Fishbein, M., and Ajzen, I. (1975).Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research, Addison-Wesley, Don Mills, Canada.Google Scholar
  12. Flay, B. R., d'Avernas, J. R., Best, J. A., Kersell, M. W., and Ryan, K. B. (1983). Cigarette smoking: Why young people do it and ways of preventing it. In McGrath, P., and Firestone, P. (eds.),Pediatric and Adolescent Behavioral Medicine, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 132–183.Google Scholar
  13. Harris, J. E. (1979). Cigarette smoking in the United States, 1950–1978. In Smoking and Health: A Report of the Surgeon General, HEW(45DHS).Google Scholar
  14. Hindelang, M. J. (1973). Cause of delinquency: A partial replication and extension.Soc. Problems 20: 471–487.Google Scholar
  15. Hirschi, T. (1969).Causes of Delinquency, University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  16. Jessor, R. (1976). Predicting time of onset of marijuana use: A developmental study in high school youth.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 44: 125–134.Google Scholar
  17. Jessor, R., and Jessor, S. L. (1977).Problem Behavior and Psychosocial Development: A Longitudinal Study of Youth, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Kandel, D. B. (1976). Stages in adolescent involvement in drug use.Science 190: 912–914.Google Scholar
  19. Kandel, D. B. (1978). Convergence in prospective longitudinal surveys of drug use in normal populations. In Kandel, D. (ed.),Longitudinal Research on Drug Use, Hemisphere, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  20. Kelson, S. R., Pullela, J. L., and Otterland, A. (1975). The growing epidemic: A survey of smoking habits and attitudes toward smoking among students in grade 7 through 12 in Toledo and Lucas County Public Schools, 1964 and 1971.Am. J. Public Health 65: 923–938.Google Scholar
  21. Klecka, W. R. (1970).Discriminant Analysis. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Krohn, M. D., and Massey, J. L. (1980). Social control and delinquent behavior: An examination of the elements of the social bond.Sociol. Q. 21: 529–543.Google Scholar
  23. Krohn, M. D., Massey, J. L., Skinner, W. F., and Lauer, R. M. (1983). Social bonding theory and adolescent cigarette smoking: A longitudinal analysis.J. Health Soc. Behav. 24: 337–349.Google Scholar
  24. Krosnick, J. A., and Judd, C. M. (1982). Transitions in social influence at adolescence: Who induces cigarette smoking?Dev. Psychol. 18: 359–368.Google Scholar
  25. Lanza-Kaduce, L., Akers, R. L., Krohn, M. D., and Radosevich, M. J. (1984). Cessation of alcohol and drug use among adolescents: A social learning model.Deviant Behav. 24: 79–96.Google Scholar
  26. Laoye, J. A., Creswell, W. H., and Stone, D. B. (1972). A cohort study of 1205 secondary school smokers.J. School Health 42: 47–52.Google Scholar
  27. Leventhal, H., and Cleary, P. D. (1980). The smoking problem: A review of the research and theory in behavioral risk modification.Psychol. Bull. 88: 370–405.Google Scholar
  28. Levitt, E. E. (1971). Reasons for smoking and not smoking given by school children.J. School Health 41: 101–105.Google Scholar
  29. Marguiles, R. Z., Kessler, R. C., and Kandel, D. B. (1977). A longitudinal study of onset of drinking among high-school students.J. Stud. Alcohol. 38: 897–911.Google Scholar
  30. Massey, J. L. (1983).Social Bonding and Minor Deviance: A Longitudinal Analysis of Adolescent Tobacco Use, Unpublished dissertion, University of Iowa, Iowa City.Google Scholar
  31. Mausner, B., and Platt, E. S. (1971).Smoking: A Behavioral Analysis, Permagon Press, New York.Google Scholar
  32. McAlister, A. L., Perry, C., and Maccoby, N. (1979). Adolescent smoking: Onset and prevention.Pediatrics 63: 650–657.Google Scholar
  33. Mettin, C. (1976). Peer and other influences on smoking behavior.J. School Health 46: 529–536.Google Scholar
  34. Newman, I. M. (1970). Adolescent cigarette smoking as compensatory behavior.J. School Health 40: 316–321.Google Scholar
  35. Palmer, A. B. (1970). Some variables contributing to the onset of smoking in junior high school students.Soc. Sci. Med. 4: 359–366.Google Scholar
  36. Rooney, J. F., and Wright, T. L. (1979). A comparative analysis of the similarity between correlates of cigarette use and marijuana use among high school seniors. A report submitted to the National Institute of Drug Use.Google Scholar
  37. Sarbin, T., and Nucci, L. P. (1973). Self-reconstruction processes: A proposal for reorganizing the conduct of confirmed smokers.J. Abnorm. Psychol. 81: 182–195.Google Scholar
  38. Schneider, F. W., and Van Mastright, L. A. (1974). Adolescent-preadolescent differences in beliefs and attitudes about cigarette smoking.J. Psychol. 87: 71–81.Google Scholar
  39. Sutherland, E., and Cressey, D. (1978).Criminology, J. B. Lippincott, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  40. Urberg, K., and Robbins, R. L. (1981). Adolescents' perceptions of the costs and benefits associated with cigarette smoking: Sex differences and peer influence.J. Youth Adoles. 10: 353–361.Google Scholar
  41. Vogt, T. M., Selvin, S., Widdowson, S., and Hulley, S. B. (1977). Expired air carbon monoxide and serum thiocyanate as objective measures of cigarette exposure.Am. J. Public Health 67: 545–549.Google Scholar
  42. Wiatrowski, M. D., Griswold, D. B., and Roberts, M. K. (1981). Social control theory and delinquency.Am. Sociol. Rev. 46: 525–541.Google Scholar
  43. Wohlford, P. (1970). Initiation of cigarette smoking: Is it related to parental smoking behavior?J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 34: 148–151.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • William F. Skinner
    • 1
  • James L. Massey
    • 2
  • Marvin D. Krohn
    • 3
  • Ronald M. Lauer
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of KentuckyLexington
  2. 2.Department of SociologyUniversity of GeorgiaAthens
  3. 3.Department of SociologyState University of New York at AlbanyAlbany
  4. 4.Department of Pediatric CardiologyThe University of IowaIowa City

Personalised recommendations