Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 41–51 | Cite as

Type A and hardiness

  • Suzanne C. Kobasa
  • Salvatore R. Maddi
  • Marc A. Zola


The study examined the relationship between the Type A behavior pattern and personality hardiness and predicted an interaction between the two that would be influential for illness onset. Type A and hardiness were found to be conceptually different and empirically independent factors. Under high stressful life events, male executives who were high in Type A and low in hardiness tended toward higher general illness scores than any other executives. Type A and hardiness emerge from this study as bases for extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, respectively.

Key words

hardiness Type A personality stressful life events 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suzanne C. Kobasa
    • 1
  • Salvatore R. Maddi
    • 1
  • Marc A. Zola
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Behavioral SciencesUniversity of ChicagoChicago

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