Cellulose: a random walk along its historical path
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- Hon, D.N.S. Cellulose (1994) 1: 1. doi:10.1007/BF00818796
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Cellulose as a material has been widely used for centuries in all kinds of practical applications. However, its chemical composition, structure and morphology were also unknown for centuries. The modern history of cellulose chemistry actually began in 1837 when Anselme Payen chemically identified cellulose from plants. Since then, the establishment of its chemical and physical structures has undergone multitudinous periods of struggle. Until the early 1920s, many scientists believed that cellulose was made up of a few small molecules of glucose or cellobiose. Very few scientists accepted the premiss that it was a polymer. The controversial debates were continued for over ten years. Eventually, substantial experimental data provided proof that cellulose is a covalently linked, high-molecular-weight macromolecule. This fact also provided the foundation for the establishment of polymer science. Some of the historical development of chemistry and structures are briefly reviewed, and recent approaches to studying cellulose structures with new instrumentation are discussed.