Springer Seminars in Immunopathology

, Volume 21, Issue 3, pp 339–359 | Cite as

Th1/Th2 balance in cancer, transplantation and pregnancy

  • Michael R. Shurin
  • Lina Lu
  • Pawel Kalinski
  • Ann M. Stewart-Akers
  • Michael T. Lotze

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Adorini L, Guery JC, Ria F, Galbiati F (1997) B cells present antigen to CD4+ T cells, but fail to produce IL-12. Selective APC for Th2 cell development? Ann N Y Acad Sci 815:401Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    al-Saleh W, Giannini SL, Jacobs N, Moutschen M, Doyen J, Boniver J, Delvenne P (1998) Correlation of T-helper secretory differentiation and types of antigen- presenting cells in squamous intraepithelial lesions of the uterine cervix. J Pathol 184: 283Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ashkenazi E, Deutsch M, Tirosh R, Weinreb A, Tsukerman A, Brodie C (1997) A selective impairment of the IL-2 system in lymphocytes of patients with glioblastomas: increased level of soluble IL-2R and reduced protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Neuroimmunomodulation 4:49Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Asselin-Paturel C, Echchakir H, Carayol G, Gay F, Opolon P, Grunenwald D, Chouaib S, Mami-Chouaib F (1998) Quantitative analysis of Th1, Th2 and TGF-beta1 cytokine expression in tumor, TIL and PBL of non-small cell lung cancer patients. Int J Cancer 77:7Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beissert S, Hosoi J, Grabbe S, Asahina A, Granstein RD (1995) IL-10 inhibits tumor antigen presentation by epidermal antigen- presenting cells. J Immunol 154: 1280Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Berghella AM, Pellegrini P, Del Beato T, Marini M, Tomei E, Adorno D, Casciani CU (1998) The significance of an increase in soluble interleukin-2 receptor level in colorectal cancer and its biological regulating role in the physiological switching of the immune response cytokine network from TH1 to TH2 and back. Cancer Immunol Immunother 45:241Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bertagnolli MM, Takai Y, Herrmann SH (1991) IL-4-supported induction of cytolytic T lymphocytes requires IL-2 and IL-6. Cell Immunol 133: 327Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bulmer JN, Morrison L, Longfellow M, Ritson A, Pace D (1991) Granulated lymphocytes in human endometrium: histochemical and immunohistochemical studies. Hum Reprod 6: 791Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chan SY, DeBruyne LA, Goodman RE, Eichwald EJ, Bishop DK (1995) In vivo depletion of CD8+ T cells results in Th2 cytokine production and alternate mechanisms of allograft rejection. Transplantation 59:1155Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chen N, Gao Q, Field EH (1996) Prevention of Th1 response is critical for tolerance. Transplantation 61:1076Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chen Q, Daniel V, Maher DW, Hersey P (1994) Production of IL-10 by melanoma cells: examination of its role in immunosuppression mediated by melanoma. Int J Cancer 56:755Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen WE, Zlotnik A (1991) IL-10: a novel cytotoxic T cell differentiation factor. J Immunol 147:528Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chen YM, Yang WK, Ting CC, Tsai WY, Yang DM, Whang-Peng J, Perng RP (1997) Cross regulation by IL-10 and IL-2/IL-12 of the helper T cells and the cytolytic activity of lymphocytes from malignant effusions of lung cancer patients. Chest 112: 960Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chouaib S, Asselin-Paturel C, Mami-Chouaib F, Caignard A, Blay JY (1997) The host-tumor immune conflict: from immunosuppression to resistance and destruction. Immunol Today 18: 493Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Clark DA, Chaouat G, Arck PC, Mittruecker HW, Levy GA (1998) Cytokine-dependent abortion in CBA x DBA/2 mice is mediated by the procoagulant fg12 prothombinase. J Immunol 160:545Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Clerici M, Ferrario E, Trabattoni D, Viviani S, Bonfanti V, Venzon DJ, Clerici E, Shearer GM, Villa ML (1994) Multiple defects of T helper cell function in newly diagnosed patients with Hodgkin's disease. Eur J Cancer 10: 1464Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Clerici M, Shearer GM, Clerici E (1998) Cytokine dysregulation in invasive cervical carcinoma and other human neoplasias: time to consider the TH1/TH2 paradigm. J Natl Cancer Inst 90: 261Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Conrad KP, Benyo DF (1997) Placental cytokines and the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Am J Reprod Immunol 37:240Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Conrad KP, Miles TM, Benyo DF (1998) Circulating levels of immunoreactive cytokines in women with preeclampsia. Am J Reprod Immunol 40:102Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cortes J, Kurzrock R (1997) Interleukin-10 in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma 26:251Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Croy B, Reed N, Malashenko B, Kim K, Kwon B (1991) Demonstration of YAC target cell lysis by murine granulated metrial gland cells. Cell Immunol 133: 116Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cunningham DA, Dunn MJ, Yacoub MH, Rose ML (1994) Local production of cytokines in the human cardiac allograft. A sequential study. Transplantation 57: 1333Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Damle RN, Advani SH, Gangal SG (1991) Impairment in proliferation, lymphokine production and frequency distribution of mitogen-responsive and interleukin-2-producing cells in Hodgkin's disease. Cancer Immunol Immunother 34:205Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    De Smedt T, Van Mechelen M, De Becker G, Urbain J, Leo O, Moser M (1997) Effect of interleukin-10 on dendrifc cell maturation and function. Eur J Immunol 27: 1229Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    De Totero D, Reato G, Mauro F, Cignetti A, Ferrini S, Guarini A, Gobbi M, Grossi CE, Foa R (1999) IL-4 production and increased CD30 expression by a unique CD8+ T -cell subset in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. Br J Haematol 104: 589Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Di Renzo M, Rubegni P, De Aloe G, Paulesu L, Pasqui AL, Andreassi L, Auteri A, Fimiani M (1997) Extracorporeal photochemotherapy restores Th1/Th2 imbalance in patients with early stage cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Immunology 92:99Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Donckier V, Wissing M, Bruyns C, Abramowicz D, Lybin M, Vanderhaeghen ML, Goldman M (1995) Critical role of interleukin 4 in the induction of neonatal transplantation tolerance. Transplantation 59:1571Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Elliott L, Brooks W, Roszman T (1987) Role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-2 receptor expression in the proliferative defect observed in mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes from patients with gliomas. J Natl Cancer Inst 78: 919Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Elliott LH, Brooks WH, Roszman TL (1984) Cytokinetic basis for the impaired activation of lymphocytes from patients with primary intracranial tumors. J Immunol 132: 1208Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Elsasser-Beile U, Kolble N, Grussenmeyer T, Schultze-Seemann W, Wetterauer U, Gallati H, Schulte Morning J, Kleist S von (1998) Th1 and Th2 cytokine response patterns in leukocyte cultures of patients with urinary bladder, renal cell and prostate carcinomas. Tumour Biol 19: 470Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Enk AH, Jonuleit H, Saloga J, Knop J (1997) Dendritic cells as mediators of tumor-induced tolerance in metastatic melanoma. Inn J Cancer 73: 309Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Esche C, Lokshin A, Shurin GV, Gastman BR, Rabinowich H, Watkins SC, Lotze MT, Shurin MT (1999) Tumor's other immune targets: dendritic cells. J Leukoc Biol 66: 336Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Flexner S, Jobling JW (1907) On the promoting influence of heated tumor emulsions on tumor growth. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 4: 156Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fortis C, Foppoli M, Gianotti L, Galli L, Citterio G, Consogno G, Gentilini O, Braga M (1996) Increased interleukin-10 serum levels in patients with solid tumours. Cancer Lett 104: 1Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fried M, Muga R, Misore A, Duffy P (1998) Malaria elicits type 1 cytokines in the human placenta: IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha associated with pregnancy outcome. J Immunol 160: 2523Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fujisao S, Tsuda H (1998) Th1/Th2 balance alteration in the clinical course of a patient with pure red cell aplasia and thymoma. Br J Haematol 103: 308Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ghosh P, Komschlies KL, Cippitelli M, Longo DL, Subleski J, Ye J, Sica A, Young HA, Wiltrout RH, Ochoa AC (1995) Gradual loss of T-helper 1 populations in spleen of mice during progressive tumor growth. J Natl Cancer Inst 87: 1478Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Goedegebuure PS, Douville CC, Doherty JM, Linehan DC, Lee KY, Ganguly EK, Eberlein TJ (1997) Simultaneous production of T helper-1-like cytokines and cytolytic activity by tumor-specific T cells in ovarian and breast cancer. Cell Immunol 175: 150Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Grohmann U, Silla S, Belladonna ML, Bianchi R, Orabona C, Puccetti P, Moretti MC (1997) Circulating levels of 1L-10 are critically related to growth and rejection patterns of murine mastocytoma cells. Cell Immunol 181: 109Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Groux H, Cottrez F, Rouleau M, Mauze S, Antonenko S, Hurst S, McNeil T, Bigler M, Roncarolo MG, Coffman RL (1999) A transgenic model to analyze the immunoregulatory role of IL-10 secreted by antigen-presenting cells. J Immunol 162: 1723Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Guimond MJ, Luross JA, Wang B, Terhorst C, Danial S, Croy BA (1997) Absence of natural killer cells during murine pregnancy is associated with reproductive compromise in TgE26 mice. Biol Reprod 56:169Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hall BM (1991) Cells mediating allograft rejection [published erratum appears in Transplantation (1991):936]. Transplantation 51: 1141Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Handel-Fernandez ME, Cheng X, Herbert LM, Lopez DM (1997) Down-regulation of IL-12, not a shift from a T helper-1 to a T helper-2 phenotype, is responsible for impaired IFN-γ production in mammary tumor-bearing mice. J Immunol 158: 280Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hara N, Fujii T, Okai T, Taketan iY (1995) Histochemical demonstration of interleukin-2 in decidua cells of patients with preeclampsia. Am J Reprod Immunol 34: 44Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hauer AC, Finn TM, MacDonald TT, Spencer J, Isaacson PG (1997) Analysis of TH1 and TH2 cytokine production in low grade B cell gastric MALT type lymphomas stimulated in vitro withHelicobacter pylori. J Clin Pathol 50:957Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hirshberg B, Kramer MR, Lotem M, Barak V, Shustin L, Amir G, Ben-Yehuda D, Ben-Yehuda A (1999) Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia associated with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Am J Hematol 60: 143Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hrouda D, Baban B, Dunsmuir WD, Kirby RS, Dalgleish AG (1998) Immunotherapy of advanced prostate cancer: a phase I/II trial usingMycobacterium vaccae (SRL172). Br J Urol 82:568Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hu HM, Urba WJ, Fox BA (1998) Gene-modified tumor vaccine with therapeutic potential shifts tumor-specific T cell response from a type 2 to a type 1 cytokine profile. J Immunol 161:3033Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Huang M, Wang J, Lee P, Sharma S, Mao JT, Meissner H, Uyemura K, Modlin R, Wollman J, Dubinett SM (1995) Human non-small cell lung cancer cells express a type 2 cytokine pattern. Cancer Res 55:3847Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Huettner C, Paulus W, Roggendorf W (1995) Messenger RNA expression of the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 in human gliomas. Am J Pathol 146: 317Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Inagawa H, Nishizawa T, Honda T, Nakamoto T, Takagi K, Soma G (1998) Mechanisms by which chemotherapeutic agents augment the antitumor effects of tumor necrosis factor: involvement of the pattern shift of cytokines from Th2 to Th1 in tumor lesions. Anticancer Res 18: 3957Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ito N, Nakamura H, Tanaka Y, Ohgi S (1999) Lung carcinoma: analysis of T helper type 1 and 2 cells and T cytotoxic type 1 and 2 cells by intracellular cytokine detection with flow cytometry. Cancer 85: 2359Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jacobs N, Giannini SL, Doyen J, Baptista A, Moutschen M, Boniver J, Delvenne P (1998) Inverse modulation of IL-10 and IL-12 in the blood of women with preneoplastic lesions of the uterine cervix. Clin Exp Immunol 111: 219Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jokhi P, King A, Sharkey A, Smith S, Loke Y (1994) Screening for cytokine messenger ribonucleic acids in purified human. J Immunol 153:4427Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kalinski P, Schuitemaker JH, Hilkens CM, Kapsenberg ML (1998) Prostaglandin E2 induces the final maturation of IL-12-deficient CD1a+Cd83+ dendritic cells: the levels of IL-12 are determined during the final dendritic cell maturation and are resistant to further modulation. J Immunol 161: 2804Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kapsenberg ML, Hilkens CM, Wierenga EA, Kalinski P (1999) The paradigm of type 1 and type 2 antigen-presenting cells. Implications for atopic allergy. Clin Exp Allergy 29 [Suppl 2]:33Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kaushic C, Frauendorf E, Rossoll R, Richardson J, Wira C (1998) Influence of the estrous cycle on the presence and distribution of immune. Am J Reprod Immunol 39:209Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kavanaugh DY, Carbone DP (1996) Immunologic dysfunction in cancer. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 10: 927Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kearns M, Lala PK (1982) Bone marrow origin of decidual cell precursors in the pseudopregnant mouse uterus. J Exp Med 155:1537Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kim J, Modlin RL, Moy RL, Dubinett SM, McHugh T, Nickoloff BJ, Uyemura K (1995) IL-10 production in cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinomas. A mechanism for evading the local T cell immune response. J Immunol 155: 2240Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    King A, Wellings V, Gardner L, Loke YW (1989) Immunocytochemical characterization of the unusual large granular lymphocytes in human endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle. Hum Immunol 24:195Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Klentzeris LD, Bulmer JN, Warren A, Morrison L, Li TC, Cooke ID (1992) Endometrial lymphoid tissue in the timed endometrial biopsy: morphometric and immunohistochemical aspects. Am J Obstet Gynecol 167: 667Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kobayashi M, Kobayashi H, Pollard RB, Suzuki F (1998) A pathogenic role of Th2 cells and their cytokine products on the pulmonary metastasis of murine B 16 melanoma. J Immunol 160: 5869Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Krasnow J, Tollerud D, Naus G, DeLoia J (1996) Endometrial Th2 cytokine expression throughout the menstrual cycle and early pregnancy. Hum Reprod 11: 1747Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Krishnan L, Guilbert L, Russell A, Wegmann T, Mosmann T, Belosevic M (1996) Pregnancy impairs resistance of C57BL/6 mice toLeishmania major infection and causes decreased antigen-specific IFN-gamma response and increased production of T helper 2 cytokines. J Immunol 156: 644Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Krishnan L, Guilbert L, Wegmann T, Belosevic M, Mosmann T (1996) T helper 1 response against Leishmania major in pregnant C57BL/6 mice increases implantation failure and fetal resorptions. Correlation with increased IFN-γ and TNF and reduced IL-10 production by placental cells. J Immunol 156:653Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kruger-Krasagakis S, Krasagakis K, Garbe C, Schmitt E, Huls C, Blankenstein T, Diamantstein T (1994) Expression of interleukin 10 in human melanoma. Br J Cancer 70:1182Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lang T, Krams SM, Martinez OM (1996) Production of IL-4 and IL-10 does not lead to immune quiescence in vascularized human organ grafts. Transplantation 62: 776Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Larsen CP, Elwood ET, Alexander DZ, Ritchie SC, Hendrix R, Tucker-Burden C, Cho HR, Aruffo A, Hollenbaugh D, Linsley PS, Winn KJ, Pearson TC (1996) Long-term acceptance of skin and cardiac allografts after blocking CD40 and CD28 pathways. Nature 381:434Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lee PP, Zeng D, McCaulay AE, Chen YF, Geiler C, Umetsu DT, Chao NJ (1997) T helper 2-dominant antilymphoma immune response is associated with fatal outcome. Blood 90:1611Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lin H, Mosmann TR, Guilbert L, Tuntipopipat S, Wegmann TG (1993) Synthesis of T helper 2-type cytokines at the maternal-fetal interface. J Immunol 151:4562Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Liu L, Rich BE, Inobe J, Chen W, Weiner HL (1998) Induction of Th2 cell differentiation in the primary immune response: dendritie cells isolated from adherent cell culture treated with IL-10 prime naive CD4+ T cells to secrete IL-4. Int Immunol 10: 1017Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lowes MA, Bishop GA, Crotty K, Bametson RS, Halliday GM (1997) T helper 1 cytokine mRNA is increased in spontaneously regressing primary melanomas. J Invest Dermatol 108: 914Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lowry RP, Konieczny B, Alexander D, Larsen C, Pearson T, Smith S, Narula S (1995) Interleukin-10 eliminates anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody-induced mortality and prolongs heart allograft survival in inbred mice. Transplant Proc 27: 392Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Luo Y, Chen X, Downs TM, DeWolf WC, O'Donnell MA (1999) IFN-alpha 2B enhances Th1 cytokine responses in bladder cancer patients receiving Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy. J Immunol 162: 2399Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Macatonia SE, Hsieh CS, Murphy KM, O'Garra A (1993) Dendritic cells and macrophages are required for Th1 development of CD4+ T cells from alpha beta TCR transgenic mice: IL-12 substitution for macrophages to stimulate IFN-gamma production is IFN-gamma- dependent. Int Immunol 5: 1119Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Maeda H, Shiraishi A (1996) TGF-beta contributes to the shift toward Th2-type responses through direct and IL-10-mediated pathways in tumor-bearing mice. J Immunol 156:73Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Maeda H, Takata M, Takahashi S, Ogoshi S, Fujimoto S (1994) Adoptive transfer of a Th2-like cell line prolongs MHC class II antigen disparate skin allograft survival in the mouse. Int Immunol 6: 855Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Matzinger P (1994) Tolerance, danger, and the extended family. Annu Rev Immunol 12:991Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Miller CL, Hooton JW, Gillis S, Paetkau V (1990) IL-4 potentiates the IL-2-dependent proliferation of mouse cytotoxic T cells. J Immunol 144: 1331Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Mondino A, Khoruts A, Jenkins MK (1996) The anatomy of T -cell activation and tolerance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:2245Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Mosmann TR, Sad S (1996) The expanding universe of T-cell subsets: Th1, Th2 and more. Immunol Today 17:138Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Nakagomi H, Pisa P, Pisa EK, Yamamoto Y, Halapi E, Backlin K, Juhlin C, Kiessling R (1995) Lack of interleukin-2 (IL-2) expression and selective expression of IL- 10 mRNA in human renal cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer 63: 366Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Onishi T, Ohishi Y, Imagawa K, Ohmoto Y, Murata K (1999) An assessment of the immunological environment based on intratumoral cytokine production in renal cell carcinoma. British Journal of Urol Int 83:488Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ota H, Igarashi S, Tanaka T (1996) Expression of gamma delta T cells and adhesion molecules in endometriotic tissue in patients with endometriosis and adenomyosis. Am J Reprod Immunol 35:477Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Pellegrini P, Berghella AM, Del Beato T, Cicia S, Adorno D, Casciani CU (1996) Disregulation in TH1 and TH2 subsets of CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood of colorectal cancer patients and involvement in cancer establishment and progression. Cancer Immunol Immunother 42: 1Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Piccotti JR, Chan SY, Goodman RE, Magram J, Eichwald EJ, Bishop DK (1996) IL-12 antagonism induces T helper 2 responses, yet exacerbates cardiac allograft rejection. Evidence against a dominant protective role for T helper 2 cytokines in alloimmunity. J Immunol 157: 1951Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Piccotti JR, Li K, Chan SY, Eichwald EJ, Bishop DK (1999) Cytokine regulation of chronic cardiac allograft rejection: evidence against a role for Th1 in the disease process. Transplantation 67: 1548Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Pollard JW, Hunt JS, Wiktor-Jedrzejczak W, Stanley ER (1991) A pregnancy defect in the osteopetrotic (op/op) mouse demonstrates the requirement for CSF-1 in female fertility. Dev Biol 148: 273Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Powell TJ, Jr., Streilein JW (1990) Neonatal tolerance induction by class II alloantigens activates IL-4-secreting, tolerogen-responsive T cells. J Immunol 144: 854Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Prasad AS, Beck FW, Doerr TD, Shamsa FH, Penny HS, Marks SC, Kaplan J, Kucuk O, Mathog RH (1998) Nutritional and zinc status of head and neck cancer patients: an interpretive review. J Am Coll Nutr 17:409Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Punnonen R, Teisala K, Kuoppala T, Bennett B, Punnonen J (1998) Cytokine production profiles in the peritoneal fluids of patients with malignant or benign gynecologic tumors. Cancer 83:788Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Qian S, Li W, Li Y, Fu F, Lu L, Fung JJ, Thomson AW (1996) Systemic administration of cellular interleukin-10 can exacerbate cardiac allograft rejection in mice. Transplantation 62: 1709Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Qin L, Chavin KD, Ding Y, et al (1995) Multiple vectors effectively achieve gene transfer in a routine cardiac transplantation model. Immunosuppression with TGF-beta 1 or V IL-10. Transplantation 59:809Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Reinartz S, Boerner H, Koehler S, Von Ruecker A, Schlebusch H, Wagner U (1999) Evaluation of immunological responses in patients with ovarian cancer treated with the anti-idiotype vaccine ACA125 by determination of intracellular cytokines — a preliminary report. Hybridoma 18:41Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Ria F, Penna G, Adorini L (1998) Th1 cells induce and Th2 inhibit antigen-dependent IL-12 secretion by dendritic cells. Ent J Immunol 28: 2003Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Rosen HR, Ausch C, Reinerova M, Zaspin E, Renner K, Rosen AC, Schiessel R, Moroz C (1998) Activated lymphocytes from breast cancer patients express the characteristics of type 2 helper cells — a possible role for breast cancer-associated p43. Cancer Lett 127: 129Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Rosenberg AS, Singer A (1992) Cellular basis of skin allograft rejection: an in vivo model of immunemediated tissue destruction. Annu Rev Immunol 10: 333Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Roussel E, Gingras MC, Grimm EA, Brunet JM, Moser RP (1996) Predominance of a type 2 intratumoural immune response in fresh tumour- infiltrating lymphocytes from human gliomas. Clin Exp Immunol 105:344Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Saed G, Fivenson DP, Naidu Y, Nickoloff BJ (1994) Mycosis fungoides exhibits a Th1-type cell-mediated cytokine profile whereas Sezary syndrome expresses a Th2-type profile. J Invest Dermatol 103: 29Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Saito S, Nishikawa K, Morii T, Enomoto M, Narita N, Motoyoshi K, Ichijo M (1993) Cytokine production by Cd16-CD56bright natural killer cells in the human early pregnancy decidua. Int Immunol 5: 559Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Salom R, Maguire J, Esmore D, Hancock W (1995) Endothelial cell activation and cytokine expression during acute human cardiac allograft rejection. Transplant Proc 27: 2164Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Sato M, Goto S, Kaneko R, Ito M, Sato S, Takeuchi S (1998) Impaired production of Th1 cytokines and increased frequency of Th2 subsets in PBMC from advanced cancer patients. Anticancer Res 18: 3951Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Sayegh MH, Akalin E, Hancock WW, Russell ME, Carpenter CB, Linsley PS, Turka LA (1995) CD28B7 blockade after alloantigenic challenge in vivo inhibits Th1 cytokines but spares Th2. J Exp Med 181:1869Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Schoof DD, Terashima Y, Peoples GE, Goedegebuure PS, Andrews JV, Richie JP, Eberlein TJ (1993) CD4+ T cell clones isolated from human renal cell carcinoma possess the functional characteristics of Th2 helper cells. Cell Immunol 150: 114Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Schuler T, Qin Z, Ibe S, Noben-Trauth N, Blankenstein T (1999) T helper cell type 1-associated and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated tumor immunity is impaired in interleukin 4-deficient mice. J Exp Med 189: 803Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Serrano D, Ghiotto F, Roncella S, Airoldi I, Cutrona G, Truini M, Burgio VL, Baroni CD, Ferrarini M, Pistoia V (1997) The patterns of IL-2, IFN-gamma, IL-4 and IL-5 gene expression in Hodgkin's disease and reactive lymph nodes are similar. Haematologica 82:542Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Shurin MR, Esche C, Lokshin A, Lotze MT (1999) Apoptosis in dendritic cells. In: Lotze MT, Thomson AW (eds) Dendritic cells: biology and clinical applications. Academic Press, San Diego, p 673Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Sirianni MC, Vincenzi L, Fiorelli V, Topino S, Scala E, Uccini S, Angeloni A, Faggioni A, Cerimele D, Cottoni F, Aiuti F, Ensoli B (1998) γ-Interferon production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes from Kaposi's sarcoma patients: correlation with the presence of human herpesvirus-8 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lesional macrophages. Blood 91: 968Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Smith DR, Kunkel SL, Burdick MD, Wilke CA, Orringer MB, Whyte RI, Stricter RM (1994) Production of interleukin-10 by human bronchogenic carcinoma. Am J Pathol 145:18Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Sredni B, Tichler T, Shani A, Catane R, Kaufman B, Strassmann G, Albeck M, Kalechman Y (1996) Predominance of TH1 response in tumor-bearing mice and cancer patients treated with AS101. J Natl Cancer Inst 88: 1276Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Steiger J, Nickerson PW, Steurer W, Moscovitch-Lopatin M, Strom TB (1995) IL-2 knockout recipient mice reject islet cell allografts. J Immunol 155:489Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Steinbrink K, Wolfl M, Jonuleit H, Knop J, Enk AH (1997) Induction of tolerance by IL-10-treated dendritic cells. J Immunol 159:4772Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Stewart I, Mukhtar D (1988) The killing of mouse trophoblast cells by granulated metrial gland cells in vitro. Placenta 9:417Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Stewart-Akers AM, Krasnow JS, Brekosky (1998) Endometrial leukocytes are altered numerically and functionally in women with implantation defects. Am J Reprod Immunol 39: 1Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Stinn JL, Taylor MK, Becker G, Nagano H, Hasegawa S, Furakawa Y, Shimizu K, Libby P, Mitchell RN (1998) Interferon-gamma-secreting T -cell populations in rejecting murine cardiac allografts: assessment by flow cytometry. Am J Pathol 153: 1383Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Strom TB, Roy-Chaudhury P, Manfro R, Zheng XX, Nickerson PW, Wood K, Bushell A (1996) The Th1/Th2 paradigm and the allograft response. Curr Opin Immunol 8: 688Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Suthanthiran M (1997) Molecular analyses of human renal allografts: differential intragraft gene expression during rejection. Kidney Int Suppl 58:S15Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Tabata T, Hazama S, Yoshino S, Oka M (1999) Th2 subset dominance among peripheral blood T lymphocytes in patients with digestive cancers. Am J Surg 177: 203Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Tadmori W, Zhang M, Beavis AJ, Sullivan LM, Narula SK (1994) Suppression of the allogeneic response by human IL-10: a critical role for suppression of a synergy between IL-2 and TNF-alpha. Cytokine 6:462Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Takeuchi T, Lowry RP, Konieczny B (1992) Heart allografts in marine systems. The differential activation of Th2- like effector cells in peripheral tolerance. Transplantation 53: 1281Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Tangri S, Raghupathy R (1993) Expression of cytokinesin placentas of mice undergoing immunologically mediated spontaneous fetal resorptions. Biol Reprod 49: 850Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Tendler CL, Burton JD, Jaffe J, Danielpour D, Charley M, McCoy JP, Pittelkow MR, Waldmann TA (1994) Abnormal cytokine expression in Sezary and adult T-cell leukemia cells correlates with the functional diversity between these T-cell malignancies. Cancer Res 54: 4430Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Toellner KM, Luther SA, Sze DM, Choy RK, Taylor DR, MacLennan ICM, Acha-Orbea H (1998) T helper I (Th1) and Th2 characteristics start to develop during T cell priming and are associated with an immediate ability to induce immunoglobulin class switching. J Exp Med 187:1193Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Toungouz M, Denys C, Groote D de, Andrien M, Dupont E (1996) Optimal control of interferongamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha by interleukin-10 produced in response to one HLA-DR mismatch during the primary mixed lymphocyte reaction. Transplantation 61:497Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Tovey MG, Benizri E, Gugenheim J, Bernard G, Eid P, Blanchard B, Hofman P (1996) Role of the type I interferons in allograft rejection. J Leukoc Biol 59: 512Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Turka LA (1998) What's new in transplant immunology: problems and prospects. Ann Intern Med 128:946Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Van den Hove LE, Van Gool SW, Van Poppel H, Baert L, Coorevits L, Van Damme B, Ceuppens JL (1997) Phenotype, cytokine production and cytolytic capacity of fresh (uncultured) tumour-infiltrating T lymphocytes in human renal cell carcinoma. Clin Exp Immunol 109:501Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Wang Q, Redovan C, Tubbs R, Olencki T, Klein E, Kudoh S, Finke J, Bukowski RM (1995) Selective cytokine gene expression in renal cell carcinoma tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Int J Cancer 61:780Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Wegmann TG, Lin H, Guilbert L, Mosmann TR (1993) Bidirectional cytokine interactions in the maternal-fetal relationship: is successful pregnancy a TH2 phenomenon? Immunology Today 14: 353Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    White H, Crassi K, Givan A, Stern J, Gonzalez J, Memoli V, Green W, Wira C (1997) CD8 CTL activity within the human female reproductive tract: influence of stage of the menstrual cycle and menopause. J Immunol 158: 3017Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Wong CP, Okada CY, Levy R (1999) TCR vaccines against T cell lymphoma: QS-21 and IL-12 adjuvants induce a protective CD8+ T cell response. J Immunol 162:2251Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Yahata T, Kurabayashi T, Honda A, Takakuwa K, Tanaka K (1998) Decrease in the proportion of granulated CD56+ T -cells in patients with a history of recurrent abortion. J Reprod Immunol 38: 63Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Yamamum M, Modlin RL, Ohmen JD, Moy RL (1993) Local expression of antiinflammatory cytokines in cancer. J Clin Invest 91: 1005Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Zhai Y, Ghobrial RM, Busuttil RW. Kupiec-Weglinski JW (1999) Th1 and Th2 cytokines in organ transplantation: paradigm lost? Crit Rev Immunol 19: 155Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael R. Shurin
    • 1
  • Lina Lu
    • 1
  • Pawel Kalinski
    • 1
  • Ann M. Stewart-Akers
    • 1
  • Michael T. Lotze
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Biologic Therapy and Surgical Oncology ProgramUniversity of Pittsburgh Cancer InstitutePittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Department of SurgeryUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical CenterPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations