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Amino Acids

, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 263–278 | Cite as

Prevention and reversible solubilization of advanced glycation and products (AGE) by organic germanium compounds as derivatives of amino acids

  • K. Nakamura
  • K. Nomoto
  • K. Kariya
  • Y. Nakajima
  • H. Nishimoto
  • S. Uga
  • M. Miyata
  • T. Osawa
  • S. Kawakishi
  • N. Kakimoto
Article

Summary

The amino-carbonyl reaction (The Maillard reaction) of bovine lens crystallin, serum albumin or skin collagen with glucose was investigated to find effective means to prevent the formation of Advanced Glycation End Products (AGE) and induce the reversible solubilization of polymerized glycated proteins. The organic germanium compounds (Ge-132, 373, 385), derivatives of amino acids containing germanium as the linker of framework, were combined by the box titration method to determine the dose that would be most effective, compared with Aminoguanidine-HCl (AMG),α-tocopherol (VE), and pirenoxine (Catalin-K, CK). Although AMG suppressed the formation of AGE, effective concentrations were higher than 20 mM. Ge-385, when administered by itself at a low dose, induced the reversible solubilization of AGE made from crystallin, and albumin. The addition of any two reagents such as AMG, VE, CK and Ge-132 or 385 together to proteins lessened the effective range, and the peaks of smaller molecules in the profiles of HPLC and PAGE were quite remarkable. Examination was made of the effects of Ge-132 on the eyes of SAM mice, which show senescence accelerated cataracts at a relatively young age. The prevention of cataract-genesis and induction of reversible transparency of turbid lenses became evident following the administration of Ge-132 to the eyes 4 times a day. The mode of action of organic germanium compounds was demonstrated quite capable of disconnecting the sugar-parts from AGE by decarbonylation, resulting in the formation of glucosone and amino residues, and further leading subsequently to fewer AGE.

Keywords

Amino acids The Maillard reaction Advanced glycation end products (AGE) Reversible solubilization Organic germanium compounds Decarbonylation 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Nakamura
    • 1
  • K. Nomoto
    • 1
  • K. Kariya
    • 1
  • Y. Nakajima
    • 1
  • H. Nishimoto
    • 2
  • S. Uga
    • 2
  • M. Miyata
    • 2
  • T. Osawa
    • 3
  • S. Kawakishi
    • 3
  • N. Kakimoto
    • 4
  1. 1.Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of BiochemistryKitasato University School of MedicineSagamihara, KanagawaJapan
  2. 2.Department of OphthalmologyKitasato University School of MedicineSagamihara, KanagawaJapan
  3. 3.Department of Food Science and TechnologyFaculty of Agriculture, Nagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan
  4. 4.Asai Germanium InstituteKomae, Setagaya, TokyoJapan

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