Basic Research in Cardiology

, Volume 91, Supplement 1, pp 85–90

Activated tissue renin-angiotensin systems add to the progression of heart failure

  • Y. M. Pinto
  • H. Buikema
  • Wiek H. van Gilst
  • K. I. Lie


In this paper, we review the hypothesis that activated tissue renin-angiotensin systems play a detrimental role in heart failure. The main arguments for this idea are discussed:
  1. a)

    tissue renin-angiotensin systems behave functionally distinct from the circulating renin-angiotensin system;

  2. b)

    tissue renin-angiotensin systems are activated in heart failure;

  3. c)

    activated tissue renin-angiotensin systems induce cardiovascular dysfunction.


Finally, this hypothesis predicts that optimal treatment in heart failure requires the inhibition of tissue renin-angiotensin systems. However, studies pertaining to this prediction are still lacking, particularly in human subjects.

Key words

Review-tissue renin-angiotensin systems heart failure experimental-clinical 


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Copyright information

© Steinkopff Verlag 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. M. Pinto
    • 1
  • H. Buikema
    • 1
  • Wiek H. van Gilst
    • 1
  • K. I. Lie
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Cardiology and Dept. of Clinical PharmacologyUniversity of GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands

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