Journal of Wood Science

, 47:58

Simultaneous expression of stilbene synthase genes in Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) seedlings



We analyzed sequences of the stilbene synthase (STS) cDNA inPinus densiflora. Three novel STS cDNA clones (pdstsl, pdsts2, pdsts3) that carry full coding sequences were isolated from a cDNA library constructed from the roots. The homologies in their coding regions were about 95%, and they have a conserved STS motif. Their phylogenetic relation was also discussed. The 3′ end of the STS cDNA fragments was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and subcloned. The 3/t' untranslated region (3′UTR) of the fragments highlighted the structure diversity. Twelve STS cDNA clones were categorized into seven distinct subclasses according to 3′UTR sequences. We discussed the stability of the transcripts and their gene organization. The simultaneous expression of the STS members is one of the mechanisms for adaptation that pine trees have developed over time.

Key words

Pinosylvin Phytoalexin Multigene family Stilbene synthase Chalcone synthase 


  1. 1.
    Suga T, Ohta S, Munesada K, Ide N, Kurokawa M, Shimizu M, Ohta E (1993) Endogenous pine wood nematocidal substances in pines,Pinus massoniana, P. strobus andP. palustris. Phytochemistry 33:1395–1401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shain L (1967) Resistance of sapwood in stems of loblolly pine to infection byFomes annosus. Phytopathology 57:1034–1045Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hillis WE, Inoue T (1968) The formation of polyphenols in trees. IV. The polyphenols formed inPinus radiata afterSirex noctilio attack. Phytochemistry 7:13–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kemp MS. Burden RS (1968) Phytoalexins and stress metabolites in the sapwood of trees. Phytochemistry 25:1261–1269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rosemann D, Heller W, Sandermann H Jr (1991) Biochemical plant response to ozone. II. Induction of stilbene biosynthesis in Scot pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings. Plant Physiol 97:1280–1286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fritzemeier KH, Kindl H (1981) Coordinate induction by UV light of stilbene synthase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cinnamate-4-hydroxylase in leaves of Vitaceae. Planta 151:48–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gorham J (1995) The biochemistry of the stilbenoids. Chapman & Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tröpf S, Lanz T, Rensing SA, Schröder J, Schröder G (1994) Evidence that stilbene synthases have developed from chalcone synthases several times in the course of evolution. J Mol Evol 38:610–618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schröder G, Brown JW, Schröder J (1988) Molecular analysis of resveratrol synthase: cDNA. genomic clones and relationship with chalcone synthase. Eur J Biochem 172:160–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Melchior F, Kindl H (1990) Grapevine stilbene synthase cDNA only slightly differing from chalcone synthase cDNA is expressed inEscherichia coli into a catalytically active enzyme. FEBS Lett 268:17–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wiese W, Vornam B, Krause E, Kindl H (1994) Structural organization and differential expression of three stilbene synthase genes located on a 13kb grapes DNA fragment. Plant Mol Biol 26:667–677PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fliegmann J, Schröder G, Schanz S, Britsch L, Schröder G (1992) Molecular analysis of chalcone and dihydropinosylvin synthase from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), and differential regulation of these and related enzyme activities in stressed plants. Plant Mol Biol 18:489–503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Raiber S, Schröder G, Schröder J (1995) Molecular and enzymatic characterization of two stilbene synthases from eastern white pine (Pinus strobus): a single Arg/His difference determines the activity and pH dependence of the enzymes. FEBS Lett 361:299–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wakamiya I, Newton RJ, Johnston JS, Price HJ (1993) Genome size and environmental factors in the genusPinus. Am J Bot 80:1235–1241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kinlaw CS, Harry DE, Sederoff RR (1990) Isolation and characterization of alcohol dehydrogenase cDNAs fromPinus radiata. Can J For Res 20:1343–1350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yamauchi Y, Kuroda H, Sakai F (1997) Two stilbene synthase genes from Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora). Wood Res 84:15–18Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Preisig-Müller R, Schwekendiek A, Brehm I, Reif HJ, Kindl H (1999) Characterization of pine multigene family containing elicitor-responsive stilbene synthase genes. Plant Mol Biol 39:221–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kubota K, Kuroda H, Sakai F (1996) Expression of stilbene synthase gene in Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) seedlings. Wood Res 83:17–20Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sanger F, Nicklen S, Coulson AR (1977) DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74:5463–5467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Myers EW, Lipman DJ (1990) Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol 215:403–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Felsenstein J (1995) PHYLIP: phylogeny Inference Package, version 3.57c. Distributed by the author. Department of Genetics, University of Washington, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dean C, Dunsmuir P, Favreau M, Katayama C, Dooner H, Bedbrook J (1986) mRNA transcripts of several plant genes are polyadenylated at multiple sites in vivo. Nucleic Acids Res 14:2229–2240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lawton MA, Dean SM, Dron M, Kooter JM, Kragh KM, Harrison MJ, Yu L, Tanguay L, Dixon RA, Lamb CJ (1991) Silencer region of a chalcone synthase promoter contains multiple binding sites for a factor, SBF-1, closely related to GT-1. Plant Mol Biol 16:235–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shaw G, Kamen R (1986) A conserved AU sequence from the 3′ untranslated region of GM-CSF mRNA mediates selective mRNA degradation. Cell 46:659–667PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lanz T, Tropf S, Marner F-J, Schröder J, Schröder G (1991) The role of cysteines in polyketide synthase. J Biol Chem 266:9971–9976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tröpf S, Karcher B, Schröder G, Schröder J (1995) Reaction mechanisms of homodimeric plant polyketide synthases (stilbene and chalcone synthase). J Biol Chem 270:7922–7928PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Preisig-Müller R, Gehlert R, Melchior F, Stietz U, Kindl H (1997) Plant polyketide synthases leading to stilbenoids have a domain catalyzing malonyl-CoA: CO2 exchange, malonyl-CoA decarboxylation, and covalent enzyme modification and a site for chain lengthening. Biochemistry 36:8349–8358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Norin T (1972) Some aspects of the chemistry of the order Pinales. Phytochemistry 11:1231–1242CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japan Wood Research Society 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Gene Expression, Wood Research InstituteKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan

Personalised recommendations