Journal of Wood Science

, Volume 48, Issue 5, pp 414–418 | Cite as

Chemical structures of the condensed tannins in the fruits ofDiospyros species

  • Fumiaki NakatsuboEmail author
  • Kenichi Enokita
  • Koji Murakami
  • Keizo Yonemori
  • Akira Sugiura
  • Naoki Utsunomiya
  • Suranant Subhadrabandhu
Original Article


The structural variety of the condensed tannins (proanthocyanidins) in the fruits of 16Diospyros species are reported. Eleven species contained condensed tannins mostly consisting of a mixture of catechin (CA) and gallocatechin (GCA) repeating units; the other five species did not. The GCA content in the CA-GCA total varied from 0.3% to 84.6%. The number of esterified gallic acid per one flavan repeating unit (degree of galloylation, DG) ranged from 0.01 to 0.89. The GCA content was found to be proportional to the DG values. Thus, 16Diospyros species tested may be classified into five groups by the analytical data of their condensed tannins. It may be interesting to compare their structural characteristics with those of the condensed tannins in other fruits, leaves, woods, and barks from the viewpoint of their biosynthesis and function in the plants.

Key words

Diospyros species Ebenaceae Persimmon fruit Chemical structure Condensed tannins 


  1. 1.
    De Winter B (1963) Ebenaceae. In: Dyer RA, Codd LE, Rycroft HB (eds) Flora of southern Africa, vol 26. Government Printer, Pretoria, pp 54–99Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wagenitz G (1964) Reihe Ebenales. In: Engler A (ed) Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien. Gebrder Borntraeger, Berlin, pp 396–403Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Whitmore TC (1978) Ebenales. In: Heywood VH (ed) Flowering plants of the world. Oxford University Press, London, pp 132–134Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cronquist A (1981) An integrated system of classification of flowering plants. In: Cronquist A (ed) An integrated system of calcification of flowering plants. Columbia University Press, New York, pp 499–501Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ng FSP (1986) Ebenaceae. In: Ng FSP (ed) Tree flora of Malaya, vol 3. Forest Research Institute, Malaysia, Kepong, pp 56–94Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sugiura A, Subhadrabandhu S (1996) Overview of persimmon culture. Chronica Hort 36:14–15Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Matsuo T, Ito S (1978) The chemical structure of kaki-tannin from immature fruit of the persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.). Agric Biol Chem 42: 1637–1643Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Komatsu S, Matsunami N (1923) On Kakishibu. I. Constitution of Shibuol, I. Mem Coll Sci Kyoto Imp Univ A 7:15–23Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Komatsu S, Matsunami N, Ishimasa N (1925) On Kakishibu, II. Mem Coll Sci Kyoto Imp Univ A-4:43–49Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Komatsu S, Matsunami N (1925) On Kakishibu, III. Constitution of Shibuol, II. Mem Coll Sci Kyoto Imp Univ A-11:231–240Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ito S, Oshima Y(1962) Studies on the tannin of Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.). Agric Biol Chem 26:156–161Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ito S, Joslyn MA (1964) Presence of several phenolic components in fruit proanthocyanidins. Nature 204:475–476CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Utsunomiya N, Subhadrabandhu S, Yonemori K, Oshida M, Kanzaki S, Nakatsubo F, Sugiura A (1998)Diospyros species in Thailand: their distribution, fruit morphologhy and uses. Econ Bot 52:343–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Broadhurst RB, Jones WT (1978) Analysis of condensed tannins using acidified vanillin. J Soc Food Agric 29:788–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Abe I, Funaoka M, Kodama M (1987) Phenolic nuclei of condensed tannins: approaches by the phenyl nucleus-exchange method. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 33:582–588Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kawamoto H, Tanaka N, Nakatsubo F, Murakami K (1993) Stereoselective synthesis of a condensed tannin using neighboring group participation. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 39:820–824Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bate-Smith EC (1954) Leuco-anthcyanins 1. Detection and identification of anthocyanidins formed from leuco-anthocyanins in plant tissues. Biochem J 58:122–125CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Roux DG (1957) Identification of anthocyanidins, leuco-anthocyanins and 2∶3-dihydroflavonols in plant tissues. Nature 179:305–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Swain T, Hillis WE (1959) The phenolic constituents ofPrunus domstica. I. The quantitative analysis of phenolic constituents. J Sci Food Agric 10:63–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sarkar SK, Howarth RE (1976) Specificity of the vanillin test for flavanols. J Agric Food Chem 24:317–320CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Goldstein JL, Swain T (1963) Changes in tannins in ripening fruits. Phytochemistry 2:371–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mitsunaga T, Doi T, Kondo Y, Abe I (1998) Color development of proanthocyanidins in vanillin-hydrochloric acid reaction. J Wood Sci 44:125–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yonemori K, Matsushima J, Sugiura A (1983) Differences in tannins of non-astringent and astringent type fruits of Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.). J Jpn Soc Hort Sci 52:135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Samejima M, Yoshimoto T (1981) General aspects of phenolic extractives from coniferous barks (in Japanese). Mokuzai Gakkaishi 27:491–497Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Haslam E (1989) Gallic acid metabolism. In:Haslam E (ed) Chemistry and pharmacology of natural products: plant polyphenols vegetable tannins revisited. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 90–153Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sarkanen KV, Hergert HL (1971) Classification and distribution. In: Sarkanen KV, Ludwig CH (eds) Lignins. Wiley-Interscience, New York, pp 43–94Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Higuchi T (1998) The discovery of lignin. In: Kung S-D, Yang S-F (eds) Discoveries in plant biology, vol II. World Scientific Publications, Singapore, pp 233–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japan Wood Research Society 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fumiaki Nakatsubo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Kenichi Enokita
    • 1
  • Koji Murakami
    • 1
  • Keizo Yonemori
    • 2
  • Akira Sugiura
    • 2
  • Naoki Utsunomiya
    • 3
  • Suranant Subhadrabandhu
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of Forest and Biomaterials Science, Graduate School of AgricultureKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  2. 2.Division of Agronomy and Horticultural Science, Graduate School of AgricultureKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Horticulture, Faculty of AgricultureKinki UniversityNaraJapan
  4. 4.Department of Horticulture, Faculty of AgricultureKasetsart UniversityBangkokThailand

Personalised recommendations