Advertisement

Environmental Geology

, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 165–180 | Cite as

Radioelement (U, Th, Rn) concentrations in Norwegian bedrock groundwaters

  • D. Banks
  • O. Røyset
  • T. Strand
  • H. Skarphagen
Article

Abstract

Twenty-eight samples of groundwater from bedrock boreholes in three distinct Norwegian geological provinces have been taken and analyzed for content of Rn, U, and Th, together with a wide variety of minor and major species. Median values of 290 Bq/1, 7.6 μg/1, and 0.02 μg/1 were obtained for Rn, U, and Th respectively, while maximum values were 8500 Bq/1, 170 μg/1, and 2.2 μg/1. Commonly suggested drinking water limits range from 8 to 1000 Bq/1 for radon and 14 to 160 μg/1 for uranium. Radioelement content was closely related to lithology, the lowest concentrations being derived from the largely Caledonian rocks of the Trøndelag area, and the highest from the Precambrian Iddefjord Granite of southeast Norway (11 boreholes) where median values of 2500 Bq/1, 15 μg/1 and 0.38 μg/1, respectively, were obtained. The Iddefjord Granite is not believed to be unique in Norway in yielding high dissolved radionuclide contents in groundwaters, and several other granitic aquifers warrant further investigation in this respect.

Key words

Groundwater Radioactivity Radon Uranium Thorium Norway Granite Drinking Water Standards 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andrews JN, Ford DJ, Hussain N, Trivedi D and Youngman MJ (1989) Natural radioelement solution in circulating ground-waters in the Stripa granite. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 53:1791–1802Google Scholar
  2. Asikainen M and Kahlos H (1979) Anomalously high concentrations of uranium radium and radon in water from drilled wells in the Helsinki region. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 43:1681–1686Google Scholar
  3. AWWA (1993) AWWA calls for less stringent radon standard. IAWWA Update, March 1993Google Scholar
  4. Ball TK, Cameron DG, Colman TB and Roberts PD (1991) Behaviour of radon in the geological environment: a review. Q J Eng Geol London 24:169–182Google Scholar
  5. Banks D, Rohr-Torp E, and Skarphagen H (1993a) Groundwater resources in hard rock; experiences from the Hvaler study, South-eastern Norway. In: Banks SB and Banks D (Eds), Hydrogeology of hard rocks. Proceedings, XXIV Congress of the International Association of Hydrogeologists. Oslo, Norway: pp 39–51Google Scholar
  6. Banks D, Rohr-Torp E, and Skarphagen H (1993b) Groundwater chemistry in a Precambrian granite island aquifer, Hvaler, Southeastern Norway. In: Banks SB and Banks D (Eds), Hydrogeology of hard rocks. Proceedings. XXIV Congress of the International Association of Hydrogeolists. Oslo, Norway: pp 395–406Google Scholar
  7. Banks D, Reimann C, Røyset O, Skarphagen H and Sæther OM (1995) Natural concentrations of major and trace elements in some Norwegian bedrock groundwaters. Appl Geochem 10(1) (in press)Google Scholar
  8. Barnes AJ (1986) Water pollution control; national primary drinking water regulations; radionuclides. Federal Register 51, 189, 30/9/86. pp 34836–34862Google Scholar
  9. Bjørlykke H (1939) Feldspat V—De sjeldne mineraler på de norske granittiske pegmatittganger [Feldspars V—uncommon minerals in Norwegian pegmatites]. Nor Geol Unders 154Google Scholar
  10. Brookins DG (1990) The indoor radon problem. New York: Columbia University Press. 229 ppGoogle Scholar
  11. Christensen T, Ehdwall H, Hansen H, Mustonen R, and Stranden E (1990) Radioaktivitet i Norden [Radioactivity in Scandinavia]. Nordisk kontaktorgan for atomenergispørsmål. June 1990Google Scholar
  12. Čermák V, Balling N, Della Vedova B, Lucazeau F, Pasquale V, Pellis G, Schulz R, and Verdoya M (1992) Heat flow density (atlas map 13). In: Blundell D, Freeman R, and Mueller S (Eds), A continent revealed—the European Geotraverse. New York: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  13. Cothern CR (1987) Development of regulations for radionuclides in drinking water. In: Radon in groundwater. Chelsea, Michigan: Lewis Publishers. pp 1–11Google Scholar
  14. DoE (1993) The householders' guide to radon, 3rd ed. Department of the Environment, UK. June 1993Google Scholar
  15. Drever JI (1988) The geochemistry of natural waters, 2nd ed., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 437 ppGoogle Scholar
  16. Engqvist P and Fogdestam B (1984) Beskrivning till kartan över grundvattnet i Stockholm Län [Description to map of ground-water in Stockholm county]. Sver Geol Unders Ser Ah, No. 6, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  17. Franko O, Kolářová M, and Mateovic L (1985) Catalogue of dokumental points to the map of mineral waters in Czechoslovakia, 1:500,000. Dionýz štúr Institute of Geology, Bratislava/ Central Institute of Geology, PrahaGoogle Scholar
  18. Garrels RM and Christ CL (1965) Solutions, minerals and equilibria. Freeman, Cooper & Co. 450 ppGoogle Scholar
  19. Grønlie A (1983) Foreløpig rapport fra befaring av radiometrisk anomali i Leksvik kommune, Nord-Trøndelag [Preliminary report from investigation of a radioactive anomaly in Leksvik municipality, Nord-Trøndelag]. Nor Geol Unders report 1729/37Google Scholar
  20. Grønlie A and Staw J (1987) Oppfø1ging av naturlige strålingsanomalier i Nord-Trøndelag med Fosen [Follow-up of natural radioactive anomalies in Nord-Trøndelag and Fosen]. Nor Geol Unders report 87.053Google Scholar
  21. Higgo JJW, Falck WE, and Hooker PJ (1989) Sorption studies of uranium in sediment-groundwater systems from the natural analogue sites of Needle's Eye and Broubster. British Geological Survey, Fluid Processes Series, Technical Report WE/89/40Google Scholar
  22. Jianli N, Jinkai L, Chengzhi W, and Shuquiang Q (1993) The control and protection of groundwater in fractured gneiss during coal mining. In: Banks SB and Banks D (Eds), Hydrogeology of hard rocks. Proceedings, XXIV Congress of the International Association of Hydrogeologists. Oslo, Norway: pp 259–264Google Scholar
  23. Karlqvist L, de Geer J, Fogdestam B, and Engqvist P (1985) Beskrivning till kartan över grundvattnet i Halland Län [Description to map of groundwater in Halland county], Sver Geol Unders Ser Ah, No. 8, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  24. Killeen PG and Heier KS (1975a) A uranium and thorium enriched province of the Fennoscandian shield in southern Norway. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 39:1515–1524Google Scholar
  25. Killeen PG and Heier KS (1975b) Th, U, K and heat production measurements in ten Precambrian granites of the Telemark area, Norway. Nor Geol Unders 319:59–83Google Scholar
  26. Kinner NE, Quern PA, Schell GS, Lessard CE, and Clement JA (1990) Treatment technology for removing radon from small community water supplies. In: Cothern CR and Rebers P (Eds), Radon, radium and uranium in drinking water. Chelsea, Michigan: Lewis Publishers, pp 39–50Google Scholar
  27. Krauskopf KB (1979) Introduction to geochemistry, 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-HillGoogle Scholar
  28. Lahermo P and Juntunen R (1991) Radiogenic properties of Finnish soils and groundwaters. In: Pulkkinen E (Ed), Environmental geochemistry in northern Europe. Geological Survey of Finland, Spec. Publ. 9. pp 257–269Google Scholar
  29. Lindahl I (1983) Classification of uranium mineralization in Norway. Nor Geol Unders 380(Bull. No. 70): 125–142Google Scholar
  30. Michel J (1990) Relationship of radium and radon with geological formations. In: Cothern CR and Rebers P (Eds). Radon, radium and uranium in drinking water. Chelsea, Michigan: Lewis Publishers, pp 83–95Google Scholar
  31. Mills WA (1990) Risk assessment and control management of radon in drinking water. In: Cothern CR and Rebers P (Eds), Radon, radium and uranium in drinking water. Chelsea, Michigan: Lewis Publishers, pp 27–37Google Scholar
  32. Milvy P and Cothern CR (1990) Scientific background for the development of regulations for radionuclides in drinking water. In: Cothern CR and Rebers P (Eds), Radon, radium and uranium in drinking water. Chelsea, Michigan: Lewis Publishers. pp 1–16Google Scholar
  33. Mose DG, Mushrush GW, and Chrosniak C (1990a) Indoor radon and well water radon in Virginia and Maryland. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 19:952–956Google Scholar
  34. Mose DG, Mushrush GW, and Chrosniak C (1990b) Radioactive hazard of potable water in Virginia and Maryland. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 44:508–513Google Scholar
  35. Nazaroff WW, Doyle SM, Nero AV, and Sextro RG (1988) Radon entry via potable water. In: Nazaroff WW and Nero AV (Eds), Radon and its decay products in indoor air. New York: Wiley & Sons, pp 131–157Google Scholar
  36. Nelson PH, Rachiele R, and Smith A (1983) Transport of radon in flowing boreholes at Stripa, Sweden. J Geophys Res 88 (B3): 2395–2405Google Scholar
  37. Nguyen-Trung C, Palmer DA, and Begun GM (1991) The role of chloride in the solubility and the transport of uranium in aqueous solutions at 25°C, 0.1 MPA. In: Selenus O (Ed), Abstracts 2nd International Symposium on Environmental Geochemistry. Sver Geol Unders Rapp Meddel. No. 69, Uppsala 1991Google Scholar
  38. Ødegård M and Andreassen BT (1987) Methods for water analysis at the Geological Survey of Norway. In: Geomedical Consequences of Chemical Composition of Freshwater. The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, Oslo, pp 133–150Google Scholar
  39. Pousette J, Müllern C-F, Engqvist P, and Knutsson G (1981) Beskrivning till kartan över grundvattnet i Kalmar Län [Description to map of groundwater in Kalmar county]. Sver Geol Unders Ser Ah, No. 1, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  40. Pousette J, Fogdestam B, Gustafsson O, and Engqvist P (1983) Beskrivning till kartan över grundvattnet i Blekinge Lan [Description to map of groundwater in Blekinge county]. Sver Geol Unders Ser Ah, No. 4, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  41. Pousette J, Müllern C-F, and Engqvist P (1984) Beskrivning till kartan over grundvattnet i Södermanlands Lan [Description to map of groundwater in Södermanlands county]. Sver Geol Unders Ser Ah, No. 7, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  42. Pousette J, Fogdestam B, and Engqvist P (1989) Beskrivning till kartan över grundvattnet i Jönköpings Lan [Description to map of groundwater in Jönköping county]. Sver Geol Unders Ser Ah, No. 11, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  43. Ryghaug P (1984) En uran-anomali i Telemark og dennes innvirkning på radon-innholdet i drikkevann [A uranium anomaly in Telemark and its influence on the radon content of drinking water]. Vann 18(2): 10 ppGoogle Scholar
  44. Salonen L (1988) Natural radionuclides in groundwater in Finland. Radiat Protec Dosim 24(1–4): 163–166Google Scholar
  45. SIFF (1987) Kvalitetsnormer for drikkevann [Quality norms for drinking water]. Statens institutt for folkehelse (SIFF), report Drikkevann G2, OsloGoogle Scholar
  46. Skjeseth S (1958) Uran i kambriske alunskifre i Oslofeltet og tilgrensende områder [Uranium in Cambrian Alun Shales in the Oslo area and adjoining areas]. Nor Geol Unders 203:100–111Google Scholar
  47. Snihs JO (1973) The content of some natural radioactive elements, especially222Rn, in some potable water in Sweden. Nord Hydrol 4:256–274Google Scholar
  48. Söderholm H, Fogdestam B, and Engqvist P (1987) Beskrivning till kartan över grundvattnet i Kronoberg Län [Description to map of groundwater in Kronoberg county]. Sver Geol Unders Ser Ah, No. 10, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  49. Sorg TJ (1990) Removal of uranium from drinking water by conventional treatment methods. In: Cothern CR and Rebers P (Eds), Radon, radium and uranium in drinking water. Chelsea, Michigan: Lewis Publishers, pp 173–191Google Scholar
  50. Statens Strålevern (1994) Handlingsplan for det videre arbeidet med radon i Norge [Action plan for further work with radon in Norway]. Report to the Norwegian Ministry of Health, March 1994. 37 ppGoogle Scholar
  51. Statens Strålskyddsinstitut (1993) Radon 1993—En rapport över läget [Radon 1993-a status report]. Report 93-10, Stockholm 97 ppGoogle Scholar
  52. Strålsäkerhetscentralen (1993) Radioaktivitet i hushållsvatten [Radioactivity in household water]. Directive ST 12.3, draft of 9.8.93. Strålsäkerhetscentralen, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  53. Strand T and Lind B (1992) Radon in tap water from drilled wells in Noway. In: Proceedings, International Symposium on Radon and Radon Reduction Technology, 22–25/9/92, Minneapolis, MinnesotaGoogle Scholar
  54. Strand T, Kolstad AK, and Lind B (1988) Radon i norske horigeren oppsummering av måleresultatene med ETB-metoden i perioden 1984–1987 [Radon in Norwegian houses—a summary of measurements with the ETB method in the period 1984–1987]. Statens Institutt for Strålehygiene (SIS), Østerås, Norway, Report 1988:6. 5 ppGoogle Scholar
  55. Strand T, Green BMR, Lomas PR, Magnus K, and Stranden E (1991) Radon i norske boliger [Radon in Norwegian homes]. Statens Institutt for Strålehygiene (SIS), østerås, Norway, Report 1991:3. 24 pp + tablesGoogle Scholar
  56. Strand T, Green BMR, and Lomas PR (1992) Radon in Norwegian dwellings. Radiat Protec Dosim 45(1–4): 503–508Google Scholar
  57. Swedjemark GA (1993) Radon och radium i vatten. Underlag för bestämmelser. [Radon and radium in water. Basis for directives]. Statens Strålskyddsinstitut report 93–34, Stockholm. 10 ppGoogle Scholar
  58. Ulbak K and Klinder O (1984) Radium and radon in Danish drinking water. Radiat Protec Dosim 7(1–4): 87–89Google Scholar
  59. Wikner T, Fogdestam B, Carlstedt A, and Engqvist P (1991) Beskrivning till kartan över grundvattnet i Skaraborg Län [Description to map of groundwater in Skaraborg county]. Sver Geol Unders Ser Ah, No. 9, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  60. WHO (1984) Guidelines for drinking water quality; recommendations, vol. 1. GenevaGoogle Scholar
  61. Zikovsky L and Chah B (1990) The lognormal distribution of radon in groundwater. Ground Water 28(5): 673–676Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Banks
    • 1
  • O. Røyset
    • 2
  • T. Strand
    • 3
  • H. Skarphagen
    • 4
  1. 1.Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse (Geological Survey of Norway)TrondheimNorway
  2. 2.Norsk Institutt for Luftforskning (Norwegian Institute for Air Research)LillestrømNorway
  3. 3.Statens Strålevern (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority)ØsteråsNorway
  4. 4.Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse (Geological Survey of Norway)OsloNorway

Personalised recommendations