Secondary mineral phases of metallic lead in soils of shooting ranges from Örebro County, Sweden
In some countries Pb-containing shotgun pellets have become one of the sources of soil contamination in shooting range areas. Pb pellets from eight shooting ranges in central Sweden were mineralogically analysed and the results show that when the Pb pellets come into contact with soil, about 10% of them are decomposed and transformed into secondary lead minerals as encrustations. The encrustation consists of two concentric rims: a 50 to 150 μm wide outer rim of hydrocerussite (Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2) and a 10 to 30 μm wide inner-rim of massicot (PbO). Anglesite (PbSO4) occurs locally in the inner rim. The growing relationship between lead mineral phases suggests that replacement took place. The podzols of the shooting ranges studied are favorable for the formation of lead carbonate. Lead carbonate provides effective controls on the retention of lead in the upper soil layers.
Key wordsShooting range soils Hydrocerussite Massicot Anglesite Lead Podzols
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