Environmental Geology

, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 370–375 | Cite as

Secondary mineral phases of metallic lead in soils of shooting ranges from Örebro County, Sweden

  • Zhixun Lin


In some countries Pb-containing shotgun pellets have become one of the sources of soil contamination in shooting range areas. Pb pellets from eight shooting ranges in central Sweden were mineralogically analysed and the results show that when the Pb pellets come into contact with soil, about 10% of them are decomposed and transformed into secondary lead minerals as encrustations. The encrustation consists of two concentric rims: a 50 to 150 μm wide outer rim of hydrocerussite (Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2) and a 10 to 30 μm wide inner-rim of massicot (PbO). Anglesite (PbSO4) occurs locally in the inner rim. The growing relationship between lead mineral phases suggests that replacement took place. The podzols of the shooting ranges studied are favorable for the formation of lead carbonate. Lead carbonate provides effective controls on the retention of lead in the upper soil layers.

Key words

Shooting range soils Hydrocerussite Massicot Anglesite Lead Podzols 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alexandersson H, Karlström C and Larsson-McCann S (1991) Temperature and precipitation in Sweden 1960–1991. SMHI METEOROLOGI No 81Google Scholar
  2. Brady NC (1990) The nature and properties of soils. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company 14 ppGoogle Scholar
  3. Driessen PM and Dudal R (1991) The Major Soils of the World Published by Agriculture University Wageningen and Katholieke University LeuvenGoogle Scholar
  4. Engström A (1993) Blyspridning från skjutbanor i Orebro Län. Diploma thesis Uppsala University (in Swedish)Google Scholar
  5. Jørgensen SS and Willems M (1987) The fate of lead in soils: the transformation of lead pellets in shooting-range soils. AMBIO 16:11–15Google Scholar
  6. Lin Z, Comet B, Qvarfort U and Herbert R (1993) The chemical and mineralogical behavior of Pb in shooting range soils from central Sweden. Environmental Pollution 89:303–309Google Scholar
  7. Lindsay WL (1979) Chemical Equilibria in Soils. New York: John Wiley & SonsGoogle Scholar
  8. Park CF and MacDiarmid RA (1970) Ore Deposits. San Francisco: Freeman and CompanyGoogle Scholar
  9. Tanskanen H, Kukkonen I and Kaija J (1991) Heavy metal pollution in the environment of a shooting range, Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 12:187–193Google Scholar
  10. Whitehead DC (1964) Soil and plant-nutrition aspects of the sulfur cycle. Soils and Fertilizers 27:1–8Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhixun Lin
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Geology, Institute of Earth SciencesUniversity of UppsalaUppsalaSweden

Personalised recommendations