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General Relativity and Gravitation

, Volume 15, Issue 5, pp 467–474 | Cite as

The weight, shape, and speed of the universe

  • A. J. Fennelly
Research Articles

Abstract

Present astronomical data indicate an unbound universe with density ∼1.6 × 10−31 g cm−3 in which galaxies could not have formed gravitationally. We show how magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processes allow galaxy formation in an open anisotropic MHD universe with shear, rotation, and fluid flow. The dipole anisotropy of the microwave background radiation sets their respective first-order values at 3.7×10−15 yr−1, 10−14 yr−1, and 5×10−4c. Second-order effects of Maxwell and Reynolds stresses require that the magnetic field, shear, and Hubble expansion be 10−8 G, 3.7×10−15 yr−1, and 10−10 yr−1 (100 km sec−1 Mpc−1). The model is rigidly self-consistent, predicting both the recent value of the Hubble expansion above and of the shear (≲ 9×10−15 yr−1) given by the microwave background's recently measured quadrupole anisotropy.

Keywords

Radiation Magnetic Field Microwave Anisotropy Fluid Flow 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. J. Fennelly
    • 1
  1. 1.Marshall Space Flight CenterES63, Space Sciences Laboratory NASA

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