General Relativity and Gravitation

, Volume 15, Issue 5, pp 467–474 | Cite as

The weight, shape, and speed of the universe

  • A. J. Fennelly
Research Articles


Present astronomical data indicate an unbound universe with density ∼1.6 × 10−31 g cm−3 in which galaxies could not have formed gravitationally. We show how magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processes allow galaxy formation in an open anisotropic MHD universe with shear, rotation, and fluid flow. The dipole anisotropy of the microwave background radiation sets their respective first-order values at 3.7×10−15 yr−1, 10−14 yr−1, and 5×10−4c. Second-order effects of Maxwell and Reynolds stresses require that the magnetic field, shear, and Hubble expansion be 10−8 G, 3.7×10−15 yr−1, and 10−10 yr−1 (100 km sec−1 Mpc−1). The model is rigidly self-consistent, predicting both the recent value of the Hubble expansion above and of the shear (≲ 9×10−15 yr−1) given by the microwave background's recently measured quadrupole anisotropy.


Radiation Magnetic Field Microwave Anisotropy Fluid Flow 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Gunn, J. E., and Oke, J. B. (1975).Astrophys. J.,195, 255.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    de Vaucouleurs, G., and Bollinger, G. (1919).Astrophys. J.,233, 433.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aaronson, M., Mould, J., Huchra, J., Sullivan III, W. T., Schommer, R. A., and Bothun, G. D. (1980).Astrophys. J.,239, 12.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sandage, A., Tammann, G. A., and Hardy, E. (1972).Astrophys. J.,172, 253.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yahil, A., Sandage, A., and Tammann, G. A. (1980).Astrophys. J.,242, 448.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Silk, J. (1974).Astrophys. J.,193, 525.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fall, S. M., and Jones, B. J. T. (1976).Nature,262, 457.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    White, S. D. M., and Silk, J. (1979).Astrophys. J.,231, 1.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Davis, M., Tonry, J., Huchra, J., and Latham, D. W. (1980).Astrophys. J.,238, L113.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Davis, M., Groth, E. J., and Peebles, P. J. E. (1977).Astrophys. J.,212, L107.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Davis, M., Geller, M. J., and Huchra, J. (1978).Astrophys. J.,221, 1.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gott III, J. R., and Turner, E. L. (1976).Astrophys. J.,209, 1.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Eden, D. C., and Oster, L. (1979).Astrophys. J.,233, 780.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sherman, R. D. (1979).Astrophys. J.,232, 1.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gott III, J. R., Gunn, J. E., Schramm, D. N., and Tinsley, B. M. (1974).Astrophys. J.,194, 543.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stenning, M., and Hartwick, F. D. A., (1980).Astron. J.,85, 101.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Aaronson, M., Huchra, J., and Mould, J. (1979).Astrophys. J.,229, 1.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sandage, A., and Tammann, G. A. (1976).Astrophys. J.,210, 7.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Visvanathan, N. (1979).Astrophys. J.,228, 81.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hawking, S. W. (1966).Astrophys. J.,145, 544.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Collins, C. B., and Hawking, S. W. (1973).Astrophys. J.,180, 317.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wasserman, I. (1978).Astrophys. J.,224, 337.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fennelly, A. J., and Evans, C. R. (1980).Nuovo Cim.,60B, 1.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fennelly, A. J. (1980).Phys. Rev. Lett.,44, 955.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Doroshkevich, A. G., Lukash, V. M., and Novikov, I. D. (1975).Sov. Astron. A. J.,18, 554.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Collins, C. B., and Hawking, S. W. (1973).Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.,162, 307.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Perko, T. E., Matzner, R. A., and Shepley, L. C. (1972).Phys. Rev. D.,6, 969.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Vajk, J. P., and Eltgroth, P. G. (1970).J. Math. Phys.,11, 2212.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dunn, K. A., and Tupper, B. O. J. (1980).Astrophys. J.,235, 307.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Smoot, G. F., Gorenstein, M. V., and Muller, R. A. (1977).Phys. Rev. Lett.,39, 898.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cheng, E. S., Saulson, P. R., Wilkinson, D. T., and Corey, B. E. (1979).Astrophys. J.,232, L139.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Smoot, G. F., and Lubin, P. M. (1979).Astrophys. J.,234, L83.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fabbri, R., Giudi, L., Melchiorri, F., and Natale, V. (1980).Phys. Rev. Lett.,44, 1563.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Woody, D. P., and Richards, P. L. (1979).Phys. Rev. Lett.,42, 925.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fabian, A. C., and Warwick, R. S. (1979).Nature,280, 39.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Warwick, R. S., Pye, J. P., and Fabian, A. C. (1980).Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.,190, 243.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wolfe, A. M. (1970).Astrophys. J.,159, L61.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Schwartz, D. A. (1970).Astrophys. J.,162, 439.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Matzner, R. A. (1980).Astrophys. J.,241, 851.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Caderni, N., Cosmo, V. D., Fabbri, R., Melchiorri, B., Melchorri, F., and Natale, V. (1977).Phys. Rev. D,16, 2424.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Caderni, M., Fabbri, R., Melchiorri, B., Melchiorri, F., and Natale, V. (1978).Phys. Rev. D,17, 1901.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nanos, Jr., G. P. (1979).Astrophys. J.,232, 341.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. J. Fennelly
    • 1
  1. 1.Marshall Space Flight CenterES63, Space Sciences Laboratory NASA

Personalised recommendations