General Relativity and Gravitation

, Volume 20, Issue 10, pp 1055–1066 | Cite as

Existence of dual mass: Experimental evidence

  • William Cates
  • Alan Cresswell
  • Robert L. Zimmerman
Research Articles


This second article on dual mass investigates the physical evidence for the existence of dual mass. We discuss three possible observations that could be used to bound the amount of dual mass in the solar system: the Eotvos experiment, the relativistic pendulum, and planetary orbits. The Eotvos experiment is used to conclude that the ratio of dual mass to ordinary mass is a constant. Under this assumption the dual mass effects are proportional to a dimensionless parameterκ which is proportional to the ratio of dual to ordinary mass. We consider two effects: First we show that a pendulum swinging in the gravitational field of the earth would be subject to a precession of the plane of oscillation; second, we show that dual mass in the solar system creates a lifting of planetary orbits. Observations of a pendulum should yieldκ to an accuracy of 10−4 and limits on the detectability of the planetary lifting puts an upper bound onκ of about 10−1.


Experimental Evidence Solar System Differential Geometry Gravitational Field Mass Effect 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • William Cates
    • 1
  • Alan Cresswell
    • 2
  • Robert L. Zimmerman
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Theoretical Science and Department of PhysicsUniversity of OregonEugene
  2. 2.Physics DepartmentPortland State UniversityPortland

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